Klio #08 (200) 2023

Savelyeva D.I. (St. Petersburg). Egyptian toponyms in the Chronicle of John of Nikiu

Institute of History,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: d-saveleva@mail.ru

Abstract. The paper deals with the Chronicle of John of Nikiu, compiled by the bishop of the Egyptian city of Nikiu in the second half of the 7th century and covering the events from Сreation until the mid-7th century. The Chronicle is a valuable source on the history of Egypt, as its author described the Arab conquest of Egypt and individual events that took place on the Egyptian land. The text of the Chronicle contains a considerable number of Egyptian toponyms, which are of interest as historical and geographical material. John of Nikiu in his work mentions toponyms, as well as unique plots from the history of Egypt associated with them, which are absent in other sources known to us. This indicates that the author of the Chronicle used original Egyptian writings, which have not survived to our days. In the Chronicle of John of Nikiu there are also a number of toponyms that no longer exist or whose location is still a matter of dispute in scientific literature. A number of Egyptian toponyms are recorded in the Chronicle with significant distortions. To all appearances, this is the result of the double translation of the original work from Greek into Arabic, and then into the classical Ethiopian language (Ge’ez), in which the Chronicle of John of Nikiu came down to us.
Keywords: foreign literature in Ethiopic translation, John of Nikiu, the Geʽez language, Egypt, Egyptian toponyms, Byzantine historiography

Malakhova S.I. (Moscow). French Aristocrats during the Fronde: Personal relations and politics

1st year postgraduate student, Lomonosov Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Department of New and Contemporary History,
115516, Moscow, Sevanskaya, 7, building 2
e-mail: serafimasoma@mail.ru

Abstract. Fronde (1648-1653) noticeably influenced King Louis XIV – he remembered from childhood how dangerous rebellious aristocrats are. In France of the Old Order, patron-client relations worked, in which nobles helped their wards, relying on their loyalty. Parties were formed largely on the basis of these ties during the Civil War. Quarrels in the family affected both the activities of the parties and the entire course of the civil war. In most cases, relatives stayed together, but there were also disagreements (for example, the independent behavior of the Duchess de Longueville, Mademoiselle de Montpensier, etc.). Conflicts between members of different factions could be explained both by the hostility of the parties and the personal hostility of the participants. Quarrels within parties are often explained by envy between members of corporations and the peculiarities of the parties of the XVII century, that is, their amorphousness, unstable membership, constantly changing composition. Personal friendship or enmity was more significant for the nobles of the Fronde’s time than belonging to a faction.
Keywords: France in the middle of the 17th century, Fronde, nobility, interpersonal relations, aristocratic families

Lapunov A.A. (St. Petersburg). K.G. von Anton’s concept of the ‘Slavic character’

Independent researcher, applicant, teacher of history and social studies.
School No. 221
198217, St. Petersburg, Leni Golikova Street, home 15, building 2
e-mail: alexlapunov@gmail.com

Abstract. The article analyzes the first of its kind concept of the Slavic character, set forth by the Lusatian scholar of the late 18th century K.G. von Anton (1751-1818) in his two-volume encyclopedic work ‘The first experience of describing the origin of customs, tempers, opinions and knowledge of ancient Slavs’ (1783, 1789). The author of the article not only outlines the very concept of von Anton, but also analyzes the context of its occurrence, proves its innovative nature and considers the factors that influenced the Lusatian scholar in his perception of the Slavic peoples. The author comes to the conclusion that von Anton creates the first of its kind critical concept of the Slavic temperament and, thus, lays down the narrative tradition of the late 18th-19th centuries about the special Slavic character. Using historical, ethnographic, travelological and linguistic sources, as well as connecting his personal experience of interaction with the Lusatian Serbs, he reconstructs the temperament of the ancient Slavs and divides its qualities into three groups: initial positive qualities, acquired negative qualities, and also speaks separately about the militancy of the ancient Slavs. At the same time, von Anton’s concept has a pronounced pedimental (borderline) character – he transfers the experience of the German-Wendian relationship to all Slavs.
Keywords: Age of Enlightenment, Slavs, ancient Slavs, Slavic character, von Anton

Antonova L.V. (Pskov). The image of the British colonizer in the novels of Louis Jacolliot

Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor
of the Russian and World History Department
Pskov State University
180000, Pskov, Lenin Square, 2.
e-mail: antonova.lidia.24@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the reflection of the theme of colonial rivalry between Britain and France in the adventure novels by Louis Jacolliot. The main facts of the biography of Louis Jacolliot are also considered. He was a colonial official in the French possessions in India, and then a publicist, lecturer, and author of the fiction books. Jacolliot’s novels made it possible to reveal the stereotypical ideas of the French about the principles of British colonial rule, the attitude of the British towards subject peoples, the typical character and personal qualities of the British colonizer himself. It is concluded that L. Jacolliot’s novels are a vivid example of colonial literature of the second half of the XIX th century. It served as one of the tools of imperial propaganda. The author’s goal was to influence public opinion, to form a negative perception of the British as the main rivals of France in the process of territorial expansion, to contrast the negative characters of the British and the positive, heroic images of the French.
Keywords: Louis Jacolliot, «image of the other», colonialism, British Empire, French Empire, colonial literature, imperial propaganda

Arbekov A.B. (Tula). Military reforms of Richard Haldane in 1906-1912 according to reports of Russian military agents in London

кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник,
Тульский государственный музей оружия.
300002, г. Тула, ул. Октябрьская, 2,
e-mail: arbekoff-alex@ya.ru

Аннотация. Статья посвящена изучению реформ британской армии, проводившихся Военным министром Ричардом Холдейном в 1906 – 1912 гг., на основе донесений российских военных агентов в Лондоне. Актуальность исследования обусловлена продолжающейся научной дискуссией в среде англоязычных историков относительно результатов военных преобразований, осуществленных в Великобритании в обозначенный исторический период, и их влияния на ход Первой Мировой войны. Основными источниками в освещении данного вопроса послужили донесения и рапорты российских военных агентов в Лондоне, в обязанности которых входило пристальное изучение сухопутных вооруженных сил Великобритании. Аналитика компетентных российских военных представителей в сочетании с другими источниками и научными трудами отечественных и зарубежных историков позволяет с критической точки зрения изучать реорганизационные мероприятия Военного министерства Р. Холдейна. Из результатов настоящего исследования следует вывод, что российские военные агенты педантично и скрупулезно занимались освещением военных реформ британской армии в 1906 – 1912 гг., своевременно сообщая о всех мероприятиях Военного министра Р. Холдейна и в то же время выявляя как положительные, так и отрицательные стороны проводимых армейских преобразований.
Ключевые слова: Первая Мировая война, британская армия, Ричард Холдейн, Генеральный штаб, военная разведка, британо-германское соперничество, Британская империя, Российская империя, военные реформы, военные маневры

Ermishin L.V. (Moscow). Scaling up the repressive function of the Bulgarian army after the coup d’état of June 9, 1923

Postgraduate Student, Department of the History of the Southern and Western Slavs, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4.
е-mail: lyermishin@inbox.ru

Abstract. One of the defining features of Bulgaria’s internal political life between the two world wars can be considered the stabilizing importance of the national armed forces in it. The scientific interest of the author focuses on the process of transformation of the traditional intra-regulatory function of the Bulgarian army into a punitive-repressive one. The use of the army beyond the powers provided by the normative-legal field in the interwar history of Bulgaria was due to the development of contradictions in the functioning of the political system of the country and the need to ensure overcoming the crisis in the life of society. The article examines the reasons and conditions under which the Bulgarian army was used by the government of Alexander Tsankov to retain political power in the country after the coup d’état of June 9, 1923. Special attention is paid to the activities of the third counterintelligence section, the so-called “porkova command” of the Ministry of War, which reported directly to the Minister of War. The article for the first time introduces a number of documents from the archive of the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission in Bulgaria. On the basis of the analysis of periodical press sources of that period, documents of the Russian State Military Archive and the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation, the author concludes that the internal political repressive function of the army after the coup d’état increased in scale and took the form of terrorist actions carried out under cover of state authorities.
Keywords: Bulgarian army, internal politics, coup d’état, repressive function, porkova command

Geiger N.N. (St. Petersburg). The Susurluk scandal in the context of the social and political life of Turkey at the end of the 20th century

Postgraduate student
The Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint-Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., b. 7–9
E-mail: nikolaigeiger997@gmail.com

Abstract. The article casts light on the Susurluk scandal and its consequences for the social and political life of Turkey at the end of the 20th century. In November 1996, a car accident occurred in the west of the republic, which caused a wide public outcry: a wanted criminal leader, a parliamentarian and a policeman were in the same car. The article focuses on the people involved in the Susurluk scandal and the reaction of activists to the incident. Attempts to investigate the causes of this scandal and bring the politicians involved to justice are also mentioned by the author. On the basis of reports prepared by various bodies in the 1980s — 90s, conclusions are presented about the cooperation between the mafia and state structures. The article also raises the question of the existence of state-controlled special armed formations, which included ultra-right nationalists from the Turkish underworld. Organized as part of the anti-communist Gladio project, these secret groups were supposed to counteract the spread of leftist ideas in the country, but members of such formations were involved in various kinds of crimes.
Keywords: Turkey, Susurluk scandal, Counter-Guerrilla, Gladio, criminal world, organized crime, secret armies

Malysheva E.B., Mikaelyan L.A. (St. Petersburg). Spain’s use of soft power policy in education and culture

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Senior Lecturer,
195251, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
e-mail: lyshma@mail.ru 

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), School of International Relations of the Humanities Institute, Senior Lecturer,
195251, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
e-mail: laluz93@mail.ru

Abstract. This article discusses two of the many ways to influence the foreign and domestic policies of other states with the help of soft power on the example of Spain. Soft power has two components: the policy pursued by the state and its authority in the international community, that is, an external factor, and the internal situation in the country, which is determined by a low crime rate, standard of living, as well as the state of culture and education, that is, an external factor. 

The degree of influence of the state is determined by ratings compiled after opinion polls or based on statistical data. The assessment is carried out from the point of view of certain specific characteristics, achievements in the economy, in high technology and business, as well as achievements in sports, culture, or the presence of any special feature that allows you to influence the global world. Many countries have a special policy of creating and cultivating certain values and norms of the political and economic model in order to create a favorable image of the country in the eyes of the world community.

Spain returned to the world stage in the 80s of the last century, after forty years of political and economic isolation associated with the rejection of the Franco regime by the world community. The cuisine, the sun and the beaches immediately attracted the tourism industry to the country, but the Spanish government was not interested in the fact that the country would become just a vacation destination. Special powers were assigned to the Ministry of Culture and Sports in order to create training centers that would carry out a policy of spreading the Spanish language by organizing language training both abroad and with the help of language tourism. After a while, these functions were taken over by the Cervantes Institute, which was specially organized for these purposes.

In the field of culture, cooperation issues are handled by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation, which operates under the guidance of the General Department for Cooperation and Development of Culture Abroad. Spain pays great attention to international cultural cooperation, as do many countries that are taking serious steps to maintain a high-level foreign cultural policy.

In the conditions of a developing knowledge economy, national education systems and culture act as effective tools of diplomacy, attracting people from all over the world to national universities, creating the necessary connections and channels of influence in the interests of promoting the national image abroad.
Keywords: soft power, image of Spain, Brand of Spain, cultural cooperation, student exchange

Pakhorukov K.I. (St. Petersburg). Enlarging external policy capacities of subnational entities. French regions

Extern, Saint-Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: k.pakhorukov@mail.ru

Abstract. This article studies the French experience concerning an increase of external policy capacities of regions as units of administrative and territorial division of the country. Analysis is made of the white paper clauses on this issue designed by the French Foreign Ministry in 2016 as well as of the national handbook on decentralized cooperation. This article looks at activity of the national authorities’ representatives in regions, regional authorities and also of the French diplomatic representations. The survey suggests that France started to use territorial units as a complementary instrument to exercise its foreign policy with a covert role of a region as a coordinator of external relations of all subnational entities situated on its territory. It states that in fact there is not only the development of external activity of regions but also the strengthening of control over it by Paris.
Keywords: regions, France, reform, decentralization, external activity, diplomacy, transborder cooperation

Gerasimova A.I. (Arkhangelsk). History and Architectural Features of the Church Ensemble of the Pomor Village Nyonoksa of the Arkhangelsk Region (from archival sources)

Associate Researcher
of the Scientific Center of Traditional Culture and Museum Preservation N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
163020, Nikolsky Ave., 20, Arkhangelsk
e-mail: gerasimova.a@fciarctic.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the religious temples of the Nenokotsky pogost, located 91 km from Arkhangelsk, on the Summer Coast of the White Sea, on the basis of a wide range of archival sources. The subject of the study are architectural and structural features of the temple complex, consisting of a cold («summer»), five-chambered church in the name of the Life-church of the Holy Trinity and warm («winter») tent church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker of the XVIII century, bell tower of the XIX century. Nenokotsky pogost is one of the oldest churchyards in the Russian North, the religious buildings of which have a centuries-old history, where each period left its mark on the existence of temples. Thanks to archival documents it was possible to trace the changes in architectural and artistic elements, the design of temples, their loss. With the help of comparative method, the cult complex of the XIX century and the modern state of the monument were described. The author came to the conclusion that the modern appearance is close to the one described in the documents. At present, the restorers rely on archival sources, which contain descriptions of the temple, as well as on the schemes of architect V.V. Suslov and other architectural expeditions. Despite the loss of some decorative elements, the complex retained its severe “northernness” and reflected the skill of Russian carpenters.
Keywords: Russian North, Arctic, folk architecture, wooden architecture, cult ensemble, architectural and constructive elements, decor, Nyonoksa

Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala), Sidnenko T.I. (St. Petersburg). On the question of the integration of Dagestan perimeters into the boss of the Russian empire (reasons and stages) (Part 2: stages)

Historian independent researcher
367030, Russia, Makhachkala,
e-mail: mr.bakanov85@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Prof., Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs MIPK
Academy of Additional Professional Education
195267, Russia, St. Petersburg, st. Ushinsky, d. 5/1
e-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

Abstract. If we analyze all those multiple scientific works that today to one degree or another represent and reflect the dynamics of the entry of the Dagestan perimeters into the bosom of Russian statehood, then we can say that the aforementioned process is divided into several interdependent stages. As absolutely all leading experts on this issue directly point to it, although at the beginning of the 19th century. Russian-Dagestan interaction had a very long and eventful history, but we state that until then, Russia regarded this region only as its foreign policy diameter. In fact, in the future this perspective has changed. In addition, operating only with the facts of history, we note that when, from approval on the scale of Ciscaucasia and up to the end of the 18th century. Whether it was the Moscow, and then the St. Petersburg Government, still not having the strength and means to do so, they were the only ones preparing a stable foothold for the future development of the Caspian-Black Sea perimeter. From the beginning of the 19th century, already having all to that, the Russian Empire, in step-by-step dynamics, managed to turn it into its organically integral frontier. Therefore, we state that the development of Dagestan took the Empire no more and no less than six decades.
Keywords: Dagestan, Russian Empire, Caucasus, integration, geopolitics, Iran, Ottoman Empire

Grytsenko A.I. (Moscow). “One of the main officials of the University”: the role of the student superintendent of Moscow University in the students’ life in the time of Nikolai I

Candidate for a degree of the Department of History of Russia
in XIX – early XX century,
Moscow State University
195220, Grazhdansky Ave, 11
е-mail: svjatoslav11@bk.ru

Abstract. The article examines the role and significance of the student superintendent’s activities in 1830s – 1850s. Based on data from published and archival sources such as university reports, University Statutes 1804 and 1835, supreme and ministerial orders, the superintendent’s job description etc., the forms of his interaction with students, forms of control, encouragement and misconduct and pranks of students are seriously explored. In addition, the article analyzes some mechanisms of interaction between the superintendent and other officials – both higher (the trustee of the educational district and the minister of public education), and subinspectors subordinated to him. It is concluded that despite detailed regulation of the superintendent’s functions undertaken in the Nikolai I Epoch, the desire of the university authorities to monitor university students constantly was not always able to be realized into practice, both due to the wide range of duties of the superintendent as well as his rather condescending attitude to student misconduct, and because of the resistance of the student corporation, which was at that time in progress and filled with its special ethics and values.
Keywords: Imperial Moscow University, student superintendent, P.S. Nakhimov, S.S. Uvarov, state students (kazennokoshtnye)

Deveykis M.V. (St. Petersburg). Nicholas II and the Russian museum sphere

Postgraduate degree from the Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
199034, Mendeleevskaya line, 5, St. Petersburg,
e-mail: deveykis@bk.ru

Abstract. The reign of the last Russian emperor Nicholas II has become one of the most popular topics for research in historical science in recent decades. At the same time, a number of subjects related to it have been insufficiently studied and require additional attention. Such topics include the development of the museum business in the Russian Empire as a whole and in St. Petersburg, rightfully called the museum capital of the country. Thus, the relevance of the article is beyond doubt. In the work for the first time on the basis of the study of historical documents: “Diaries of Emperor Nicholas II (1894-1918)” analysed the aspect of the influence of the last emperor on the Russian museum sphere, revealed the dynamics of visits to museums, goals, preferences of the sovereign. The study used general historical principles: objectivity, scientificity, historicism, as well as the comparative-historical.
Keywords: museums, Emperor Nicholas II, St. Petersburg, museum sphere, diaries of the Emperor

Prokhorova E.S. (Moscow). Some areas of activity of the State Defense Council of the Russian Empire in the field of military policy in the early 20th century

Senior Lecturer, the Chair of International Management, Institute for Social Sciences,
the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
82 Vernadsky Avenue, Moscow, 119571, Russia.
e-mail: Prokhorova-es@ranepa.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the main activities of the State Defense Council of the Russian Empire in the field of military policy in the early 20th century. In particular, the development of a general state defense plan in accordance with the requirements of that time and achieving the necessary financial support for a set of measures to implement this plan. Based on a large number of archival documents and materials, the legal mechanisms of financial support for the Russian armed forces in the period under review are revealed. The ways of solving a very difficult task are traced – to coordinate, if possible, two mutually contradictory goals. On the one hand, the state should reduce military expenditures, and on the other hand, it would incur a grave reproach if it cared only about reducing the budget to the detriment of the combat capability of the army.
Keywords: Constitutional Monarchy, State Duma, Defense and Military Budget Spending Commission of the State Duma, Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Kuptsova I.V., Mazin A.V. (Moscow). The problem of denationalization in the industrial policy of the anti-Bolshevik governments in 1918

PhD, professor,
Department of regional and municipal administration,
School of Public Administration,
Moscow State University (Lomonosov)
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4.
e-mail: ivkuptsova@mail.ru

Postgraduate student of the 3rd year of study
 of the department History of state
 and municipal administration
School of Public Administration,
Moscow State University (Lomonosov)
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4.
e-mail: r.s.nizamfor@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the mechanism of denationalization used by the anti-Bolshevik governments in 1918. The provision on denationalization took place in the program declarations of most anti-Bolshevik governments. Its goals were the restoration of industrial potential to provide for the army and society, as well as the expansion of the social base at the expense of the business community. The degree of development of the problem of denationalization by different governments differed, but the mechanism of implementation was similar and included several stages: installation, preparatory and basic. At the first stage (installation), the regulatory framework for denationalization was developed and institutions were created in the form of special commissions operating under the auspices of the Ministries of Industry and Trade. At the second stage – preparatory – specially created commissions had to check the condition of industrial enterprises subject to denationalization. At the same stage, the improvement of legislation continued. The third stage – the main one – involved the adoption by the Commission of a decision and its implementation. When transferring the rights to the owners of enterprises, the state continued to maintain control over them.
Keywords: anti-Bolshevik governments, industrial policy, denationalization, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Civil War

Gapsalamov A.R., Bochkareva T.N., Vasiliev V.L. (Yelabuga), Abdunazarov L.M. (Kokan city, the Republic of Uzbekistan). The first experiences of the Soviet government in the management of the handicraft industry of the regions

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Head of the Department of Economics and Management
423600, 89 Kazanskaya str., Yelabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation,
e-mail: gapsalamov@yandex.ru

Tatiana Nikolaevna Bochkareva
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogy,
423600, Russian Federation, Republic of Tatarstan, Yelabuga, ul. Kazanskaya, 89,
e-mail: tatyana-n-boch@mail.ru

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management,
423600, 89 Kazanskaya str., Yelabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation,
e-mail: vasvladlev@mail.ru

Doctor of Pedagogy (PhD), Associate Professor, Kokan State Pedagogical Institute, Faculty of Natural Sciences,
150700, 23 Turon str., Kokan city, Fergana region of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
e-mail: lutfullo_abdunazarov@mail.ru 

Abstract. Introduction. The presented study is devoted to the study of the role and importance of small-scale handicraft industry in the Soviet economy. Methods and materials. The methodological basis of the presented article was an approach based on the application of the principle of historicism. Guided by this principle, the author sought to show the changing role of handicraft industry in the economy of Soviet Russia. The principle under consideration was used in conjunction with the methods of scientific cognition. In the work on the article, the author used such general scientific research methods as analysis, synthesis, deduction and abstraction. Analysis. On the example of data obtained in the archives of Belarus and the Republic of Tatarstan, the features of the transformation of the handicraft industry in the post-revolutionary period are shown. The main legislative acts that influenced the development of this form of enterprises are considered, organizational changes in the management system of the handicraft industry are shown. Results. It is proved that the Soviet government paid increased attention to the development of handicraft industry in the period under review, which determined constant organizational and legislative changes. Based on the size of enterprises, this organizational form was more adaptable in the conditions of the general economic crisis, which led to their survival in the post-revolutionary period. The author revealed such a feature as the identity of the forms of management of the handicraft industry at the level of the country and regions, not only in the conditions of sectoral centralization, but also in an earlier period.
Keywords: handicraft industry, enterprise, economics, management system, Soviet Russia, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Tatarstan

Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk). The participation of co-operative organizations in rural cinema development in the 1920s

doctor of historical sciences,
associate professor at the Department of National history,
Institute of history, political and social sciences,
Petrozavodsk state university,
185910, Russian, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk,
Lenin Ave., 33. е-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article highlights the role of cooperation in cinematography and the development of domestic cinema in the 1920s. The Board of the Centrosoyuz has developed a project to create the All-Russian Cooperative Joint-Stock Society of Cinematography. The organization, based on mixed cooperative and joint stock principles, was supposed to include the central unions of consumer, agricultural, trade, and forest cooperation. Much attention is paid to the organization of the association for the cinematography of the village “Rural Cinema”. The founders of Selkino were various state institutions and departments, cooperative unions (Tsentrosoyuz, Selskosoyuz, Plodovinsoyuz, Flax center, Vsekoles). The idea of ​​creating “Selkino” was supported by the Peasant’s Houses, regional unions of cooperation, county land administrations and other organizations. Since “Selkino” failed to cope with the task of filming the village, after the All-Union Party Conference on Cinematography (1928), film work in the countryside was transferred to consumer cooperatives; the place of cooperation in “moving cinema to the countryside” and carrying out activities to increase the number of film installations in rural areas has been determined. In the course of the study, the policy of the state in relation to consumer cooperation as the main channel for filming the village, which became part of its general cultural and educational work, was considered. It was also possible to trace the socio-cultural dynamics of the deployment of a cooperative cinema network in rural areas in the 1920s. In general, consumer cooperation, as a large economic organization, has made a significant contribution to the distribution of cinema installations in rural areas.
Keywords: cooperation, cinematography, cinematography, “Selkino”, “promotion of cinema in the countryside”

Baranov A.V., Ishin A.V. (Krasnodar). Political moods of the poorest peasantry of the South of Russia in the context of the formation of a new economic policy

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Kuban State University, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Political Management, Russia, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya str., 149, room 237, e-mail: baranovandrew@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Crimean Federal University named after V.I. Vernadsky, Professor of the Department of Russian History of the Institute “Taurida Academy” (structural unit), Russia, Simferopol, ave. Academician Vernadsky, 4, e-mail: a.ischin@yandex.com

Abstract. The relevance of the topic is that the study of the political moods of the poorest stratum of the peasantry of Southern Russia during the transition from the policy of war communism to the NEP is important for understanding the transformations of the relationship between the authorities and various stratas of the peasantry in the multicultural society of the 1920s. The purpose of the article is to determine the factors and manifestations of the political moods of the poorest stratum of the peasantry of Southern Russia during the formation of the NEP (spring 1921–1924). The methodology of the study includes structural-functional and comparative-historical analysis. The authors studied the statistics of the social and ethnic structure of the South Russian peasantry, normative legal acts, documents of regional party organizations of the RCP(b), information reports and reviews of the organs of the Cheka–OGPU. As a result of the study, conclusions are drawn. The processes of social differentiation as a result of the policy of war communism led to the impoverishment of all strata of the Southern Russian peasantry. The poorest stratum of farmers consisted of “nonresidents” in the Russian regions, and in the autonomous regions – of low-status estates of traditional society. The interweaving of class, class and ethnic stratification factors persisted. The poorest peasantry supported the Soviet government out of pragmatic motives, being interested in a radical redistribution of land, the elimination of the privileges of the Cossacks and the consolidation of communal land ownership. Therefore, the interests of the party-state authorities and the poor did not always coincide. The formation of the NEP (spring 1921–1924) led to a gradual expansion of the social base of the government, created opportunities for civil reconciliation. At the same time, a number of categories of the poor (Red partisans, Civil War veterans) showed rejection of the NEP.
Keywords: peasantry, the poorest stratum, the South of Russia, political sentiments, factors, new economic policy, formation.

Polovetsky S.D., Volodina N.A., Obukhov O.Yu. (Moscow). Military educational institutions of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of History
 Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University.
23001, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: polovez53@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Associate Professor of the Department of History
Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University.
23001, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: volodinanatalya@mail.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Senior Lecturer of the Department of History
Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University.
23001, Moscow, B. Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: obuhov.ron@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the history of military educational institutions of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War. It shows that with the beginning of the war, early graduates were held in military educational institutions, and a significant part of the permanent staff of academies and colleges left for the front, for the active army. From the first days of the war, anti-aircraft educational institutions took part in protecting the city from enemy air attacks. The personnel of a number of military educational institutions showed heroism and courage in combat operations while defending the city from the Nazi invaders. The process of evacuation of military educational institutions to the rear areas of the country is briefly considered, the features of the formation and intensification of the educational process in the interests of the front are highlighted.

The publication was carried out in accordance with the Plan of military-historical work of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2023, as part of the creation of a scientific reference work “The Battle for Leningrad in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945: Encyclopedia”.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, St. Petersburg, Leningrad, military educational institutions, military academies, military schools

Liulei (Urumqi, People’s Republic of China). Demographic changes in the composition of Russian emigration in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region

postgraduate, department of historical regional studies, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University,
193231, Solidarity Avenue, 27, Building 1.
People’s Republic of China, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, st. JianQuan, 35.
e-mail: liulej@yandex.ru

Abstract. The dynamics of the Russian population in Xinjiang is one of the most pressing issues in studying the Russian diaspora. At the same time, this issue has been poorly covered in the academic literature. The paper aims to identify the main points of change in the number and structure of Russian emigration in its settlement in Xinjiang and the factors that influenced this process. Based on documents from state archives, as well as materials from periodicals and literary sources, resulted in the following conclusions. The main groups of emigrants in Xinjiang were Old Believers and Russians, who were abandoned in Xinjiang due to political and religious upheavals before the conclusion of the Treaty of Kulja. The main reasons for the growth in the number of Russians were subjects of the Russian Empire. The article presented some data about the opening of trading posts and the foundation of consulates after the Treaty of Kulja and the Treaty of Saint Petersburg. Explained the reduction in the number of the White Guard after they entered Xinjiang. This paper analyzed the settlement of Russians before the revolution and the period from the 20s – 40s of the XX century. It also determined the features of the demographic composition of Russian emigrants at the beginning of the formation of the People’s Republic of China to the present time.
Keywords: Xinjiang, China, Russian emigration, number, resettlement

Slivko S.V. (Khabarovsk). The role of the Khabarovsk regional branch of the society “USSR – Japan” in strengthening Soviet-Japanese cultural ties (1960 – 1985)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of National and World History, Pacific National University
680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, st. K. Marx, 68.
e-mail: tov.slivko@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers various aspects of the activity of the Khabarovsk regional branch of the society «USSR – Japan» (OSE) aimed at strengthening Soviet-Japanese cultural ties in 1960-1985. The main priority directions of work of division of the society have been allocated, their implementation and socio-political effect have been considered. The functions of the Khabarovsk regional branch of the OSE in the system of Soviet-Japanese relations have been determined. The author concludes that they were largely determined by the tasks of forming positive ideas about the USSR among the inhabitants of Japan, supporting the Soviet foreign policy by means of popular diplomacy, developing friendly relations between Soviet people and Japanese at various levels of interaction. The Khabarovsk branch of the society has a significant personal contribution to the development of Soviet-Japanese friendship, and leaders and activists of the Khabarovsk branch have a significant personal contribution to the development of Soviet-Japanese friendship.
Keywords: Far East, USSR, Khabarovsk Territory, USSR-Japan society, Soviet-Japanese cultural ties, M.P. Danilovsky

Mochalov D.P., Magomedov R.R. (Orenburg). International reaction to the prohibition of the CPSU and the problem of Atlanticism after the Cold War

Applicant for a Degree Candidate of Historical Sciences
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
e-mail: dosoldschool@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
460014, Russian Federation, Orenburg, Sovetskaya St., 19
Orenburg Branch of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
460000, Orenburg, Leninskaya/Pushkinskaya St., 50/51-53
e-mail: rr-magomedob@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article examines the international reaction to the anti-communist policy of the Russian Federation during the first post-Soviet years, as well as the evolution of Atlanticism in the new international conditions. On the material of socio-political periodicals of that time and documents from the archive of the Presidential Center B.N. Yeltsin, an attempt was made to reconstruct that part of the international discussion on these issues that was accessible to the Russian-speaking reader of those years. The main motives and the system of argumentation of stakeholders who supported or criticized the measures of the Russian government are highlighted. The main lines of argumentation were an appeal to history, law and the need to defend democracy, and all parties equally appealed to these motives. Against the background of conflicting assessments, there is a consensus that the event is of serious international significance. It is concluded that there is a confrontation on the issue not only between left and right political forces in the international arena, but also between the United States and Western European countries, since anti-communism was perceived as a justification for American hegemony. The heterogeneity of the reaction and the prevalence of critical assessments allow us to conclude that the persecution of the CPSU is more likely due to Russia’s domestic political motives than the situation of defeat in the Cold War.
Keywords: anti-communism, CPSU, cold war, Atlanticism, liberal reforms, political parties

Volgin E.I. (Moscow). Problems of depoliticization of the law enforcement system of the Russian Federation after 1993

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the History of Social Movements and Political Parties, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, building 4
e-mail: plytony@yandex.ru

Аbstract. The purpose of the article is to consider the depoliticization of the Russian law enforcement system as an integral political and legal strategy that was carried out by the state (presidential) authorities after the end of the 1993 crisis. The depoliticization of the police, the prosecutor’s office and the special services, now included in the presidential “vertical”, was aimed mainly at protecting the personnel of these departments from the unauthorized influence of the party-political opposition, which gained parliamentary legitimation after the electoral reform. The main tool for depoliticization of the law enforcement system of the Russian Federation in the new conditions was the adjusted personnel policy of the President and his Administration, which provided for the selection of loyal B.N. Yeltsin personnel. Those heads of law enforcement departments who, on the wave of “democratic inertia” that persisted for some time after the fall of the “August Republic”, tried to demonstrate a model of summing up that was different from the presidential strategy, did not fit into the new configuration, and therefore were promptly replaced by more trustworthy personnel. Particularly acute after 1993 was the question of the depoliticization of the Constitutional Court, which was involved in political confrontation. The article discusses the reform of the Court, part of which was a personal reshuffling within this body, aimed at leveling the influence of opposition-minded judges. In this regard, even the work of this body had to be suspended until the relevant law was adopted, which provided, among other things, for the non-partisan status of a federal human rights activist.
Keywords: Depoliticization, B.N. Yeltsin, President, Constitutional Court, Federal Security Service, federal law, prosecutor’s office, Commissioner for Human Rights in the Russian Federation

Martyukova Е.А. (Moscow). Settlement of the Greek-Bulgarian territorial dispute at the Paris Peace Conference in 1946 and its historical significance

Postgraduate of the History Faculty of
Moscow State University
Department of Russian History of the XX-XXI centuries, 125167,
Moscow, Krasnoarmeiskaya street, building 11/4.
e-mail: eamartyukova@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of an important problem of the territorial affiliation of Western Thrace at the Paris Peace Conference of 1946 and the role of Soviet diplomacy in its solution. The interests and policies of Greece, Bulgaria, the USSR and the Western powers in this region, the military and political-diplomatic confrontation between Greece, on the one hand, and Bulgaria, on the other, as well as the degree of influence of the Soviet state on the solution of the question of Western Thrace are considered. The purpose of this article is to study the national-territorial claims of Greece to Thrace, which were discussed at the Paris Peace Conference. Based on the review of documentary archival materials during the study, the author of the article came to the conclusion that in the process of resolving the issue of the Greek-Bulgarian border, Greece failed. The evaluation of the results of the efforts of the USSR government to protect the territorial integrity of Bulgaria is given. The active participation of the USSR was aimed at maintaining peace in the region. The material presented in the article shows the active struggle of the USSR for a potential ally in the Balkans. Comparing the positions of the parties, the author shows the course of the political struggle around the adoption of final decisions on Western Thrace. The methodological basis of the study is the principles of historicism and consistency, which involve the consideration of phenomena and facts in their entirety and development in accordance with the conditions of a particular historical era. The principle of objectivity is also used. The relevance of the research problem is explained by the need to ensure the territorial integrity of states and, at the same time, the complexity of forming new state entities within acceptable borders for all warring parties, by normalizing interethnic relations in them and taking into account geopolitical factors. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that, based on the involvement of new archival documentary materials, an attempt was made to study the issue of establishing the Greek-Bulgarian border in 1946 during the approval of territorial changes after World War II. In the scientific literature, this problem has not been specifically posed in such a perspective until now.
Keywords: Paris conference of 1946, Soviet diplomacy, Western Thrace, Bulgaria, Greece, USSR, diplomatic struggle, Tsaldaris, Molotov, Vyshinsky

Trapeznikov D.A. (Moscow). Reflection of the stage of the military biography of A. V. Golitsyn of the era of the struggle against False Dmitry II in the mirror of discharge, annalistic and foreign sources

2nd year Master’s student
Moscow State University,
Department of Source Studies
117449, Moscow, Shvernik Street, 19k1.
e-mail: trapeznikoff.dima2018@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the most outstanding stage of the military biography of Prince Andrei Vasilyevich Golitsyn.

The Time of Troubles was the period of the greatest activity of Prince A.V. Golitsyn.

The number of prescriptions, especially military ones, shows a period of growth that is incommensurable with age. However, the challenge of a crisis in production, the occurrence of emergency situations of perturbations, led to difficulties in the characteristics of specific types of activities of a service class soldier.

Prince A.V. Golitsyna. It was at the moment of the offensive that the young generation of commanders from among the most prominent came to the fore, and A.V. Golitsyn was the only prince.

Scientific novelty of the work in the analysis of the most intense stages of the biography of Prince A. V. Golitsyn

As the analysis of literary sources showed, the discharge materials made it possible to obtain the most complete list of representatives of the representatives of the military class. At the same time, bit records provide rather dry details about events and events. In this vein, profitable data exported by summer materials. The testimonies of foreigners have the most outstanding informational wealth, but they have problems, both in categories and annals.
Keywords: voivode, Prince A.V. Golitsyn, chronicles, discharge books, False Dmitry II, battle, foreign sources

Postike N.B. (Moscow). Enlightened bureaucracy in the service of the Russian Empire (V.I. Veshnyakov)

PhD student 3 years of study
Department of History of State and Municipal Administration
Faculty of Public Administration
Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov
Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskiye Gory, 1
e-mail: baski0783@gmail.com

Abstract. In this article, using the example of a separate history of a government official, an attempt is made to characterize a new type of civil servant that was formed in the Russian Empire by the second half of the XIX-th century as a result of the development of higher education. By the term “enlightened” bureaucrat, the author understands not the bearer of the idea of the socio-political current of Enlightenment, but the product of the development of education and science within the official environment. The work is based on the analysis of the autobiography, stored in the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive (hereinafter RSHA) and the works by V.I. Veshnyakov illustrating his professional achievements and reflecting his socially significant aspirations.

The purpose of this article is to trace the mechanisms of formation of an enlightened bureaucratic elite by the example of the career development of a government official in the second half of the XIX-th century. To achieve this goal, the following tasks will be solved: to characterize the main stages of V.I. Veshyakov`s public service, to analyze scientific works and contribution to the development of the department over the years of the service, to assess the role of individual initiative in a government post; to establish the role of involvement in the international socio-scientific field of representatives of government institutions of the Empire on the concrete example. The work is based on the principles of historism, the main method of working with the material is the historical-systematic method, which makes it possible to analyze the activities of V.I. Veshnyakov as an integral phenomenon of the past in its connection with external historical events and to determine its sources of internal motivation of social activity. The use of the historical-genetic method will reveal the processes of transformation of the managerial functions of an official during the development of administrative potential.
Keywords: Enlightened bureaucracy, Russians officials, the history of Russian Empire XIX century, civil servant, the Ministry of State property

Khavkin B.L. (Moscow). Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus and Artillery General Walter von Seydlitz in Soviet captivity

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor Historical and Archival Institute
Russian State University for the Humanities
125047, Moscow, Miusskaya square, 6
E-mail: novistor@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on Russian and German sources and literature, the article examines the problem of the relationship between Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus and Artillery General Walter von Seydlitz in Soviet captivity. The complex and contradictory relations between Paulus and Seydlitz largely determined the situation with senior officers and generals of the Wehrmacht in Soviet captivity and were connected with the policy of the Soviet authorities, who sought to involve captured German generals and senior officers in anti-fascist work. In relation to Paulus and Seydlitz, this work was carried out both within the framework of the NKVD operation “Satrap”, and more broadly – on the basis of the “Free Germany National Committee” and the “Union of German Officers”; it continued even after the dissolution of these organizations. However, the question of the influence of the relationship between Paulus and Seidlitz on their fate in the Stalingrad cauldron, in Soviet captivity and in the post-war destinies of these German military leaders has not yet received proper coverage in the literature. This article is devoted to solving this problem.
Keywords: World War II, history of military captivity, «National Committee “Free Germany”», “Union of German Officers”, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, Artillery General Walter von Seydlitz, Operation “Satrap”

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Xinhai National Revolution in China and its results: two ways of one people (historical and political aspect) (Part 2)

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The causes, nature and main results of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911-1912 are highlighted in China. The subsequent events of the civil war between the supporters of the bourgeois-nationalist and communist concepts of China’s further development are analyzed. The historical portraits of political leaders of both monarchical and post-revolutionary China are considered. Particular attention is paid to the biographies of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong. Data are given on the struggle of the Chinese aggression of 1937-1945 and the second stage of the civil war in China.

The data on the achievements and problems of Chinese statehood in the second half of the 20th – early 21st century is argued. The features of the Soviet-Chinese and Russian-Chinese relations during the years of the period of the formation of a multi-molar world are analyzed. Provides extensive source material. The first part of this article was published in Klio No. 6, 2023, pp. 111-121.
Keywords: Xinhai Revolution, Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Civil war in China, Japanese militarism, Manchukuo, Republic of China Taiwan

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Water supply routes of blockade Leningrad. Review of the monograph “Water roads of life in blockade Leningrad: little-known pages”

Dr. Sci. (Historical), Professor
Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
е-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. Monograph S.V. Fedulov, V.N. Polovinkin, V.V. Sokolov “Water roads of the life of blockade Leningrad: little-known pages” [1] is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the complete lifting of the blockade of Leningrad. For 900 days and nights, the defenders and residents of the city on the Neva were in blockade. The most difficult period for them was 1941–1942. At that time, the supply of the city, the evacuation of residents and industrial enterprises was carried out along Lake Ladoga. In addition to supplying Leningrad, it was necessary to provide Kronstadt and the defenders of the Oranienbaum bridgehead along the Gulf of Finland with everything necessary.

The defense of the city and all measures for its supply were led by the Military Council of the Leningrad Front. The direct organization and transportation of goods and passengers along the Waterways of Life was carried out by the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and the Ladoga military flotilla, which is part of it.

For the first time, the monograph systematically reveals the key role of the Ladoga military flotilla in the functioning of the Summer Road of Life, thanks to which Leningrad was successfully supplied, a power cable and a pipeline were laid along the bottom of Lake Ladoga. It also shows the important role played by the fleet, both in the defense of Leningrad and in the complete lifting of the blockade, namely in the redeployment of the 2nd Shock Army, which participated in the operation “January Thunder”.

The monograph is of interest to a wide range of readers, as well as to historians dealing with the issues of the heroic besieged Leningrad. The northern capital has become an example of courage for the whole country. Nothing can obscure this martyrdom of the people of Leningrad and the defenders of the city.
Keywords: Blockade of Leningrad, Lake Ladoga, Gulf of Finland, Ladoga Military Flotilla, Military Council of the Leningrad Front, Red Banner Baltic Fleet