Klio #09 (177) 2021


Schmidt W. (Regensburg, Germany). Prussia and the Jews: on problem of early relationships

Magister of History,
University of Regensburg,
Humboldt street 48 a, 93053 Regensburg, Germany,
E-mail: wolodjaschmidt@gmx.de

Annotation. The article is devoted to consideration of the issue devoted to integration of the Jewish population after his expulsion from Austria in the Prussian society in the period of XVII – end of XVIII century. In this publication, the author also considered issues related to the early stage of the formation of these relationships. The article describes the main legislative acts regulating these relations. In addition, the author tried to reveal certain difficulties in the policy associated with the negative attitude of different classes to Jewish resettlement. 

On the basis of available materials, the author presented the history of formation and development of relations between the Prussian state and Jews. The article also points out that all legislative acts and orders regulating the situation of Jews in Prussia reveal the essence of policy of the rules of Prussia aimed only at the development of their economic activity, but these measures, enshrined in the legislative acts of Prussia against Jews did not contribute to their social and legal integration in Prussian society.
Keywords. Prussia, the resettlement of Jews from Austria, the edict of 1671, the position of the estates of Prussia and their attitude to the Jewish resettlement, legislation governing the relationship between the Prussia state with the Jews

Vartanyan E.G. (Krasnodar). Nikolai Nikolaevich Karazin on the situation in the Balkans during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 (based on personal sources)

professor, doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Kuban State University.
Krasnodar, 350040, st. Stavropolskaya, 149. Kuban State University.
е-mail: vartaneg@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is devoted to the description of the events on the Balkan Peninsula in 1877–1878 by the Russian war correspondent, painter Nikolai Nikolayevich Karazin. The article presents biographical information about Nikolai Nikolaevich, analyzes his diaries, reports, notes, quotes from sources that demonstrate ethnographic details from the life of the population of the Balkans. N.N. Karazin transports the reader into the atmosphere of the Balkan realities of the 1870s. The Balkan cities of the last third of the 19th century are vividly described.
“The Danube is on fire. Diaries of a Correspondent “- the front-line diary of N.N. Karazin – is a fiction and documentary work, which deeply and photographically accurately describes the events in the Balkans in the 1870s. Diaries, notes, reports by N.N. Karazin reflect his perception of events in the Balkans in the 1870s. and record them at the documentary level. The author tries to objectively reflect the essence of the processes that took place and translates them into artistic form.
The methodological main article is the principles of historicism and objectivity, the author used historical-typological, historical-genetic, narrative research methods.
The author comes to the conclusion that the materials of the diaries, notes and reports of N.N. Karazin are of historical value, are an important primary source written by a contemporary and eyewitness to events and expand our knowledge of the Balkans in the last third of the nineteenth century.
Keywords: N.N. Karazin, war correspondent, diaries, reports, notes, Balkans, Russian-Turkish war.

Khavkin B.L. (Moscow). Jews in the German anti-Hitler resistance

Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor of the Historical and Archival Institute
Russian State University for the Humanities
 6 Miusskaya Square, Moscow, 125993, Russia.

Annotation. Part of the German Resistance to Nazism was the Resistance of the German Jews. This problem is new for Russian historiography. The author, studying this topic mainly based on German sources and literature, concludes that the idea formed in the literature about the defenseless German Jew is a myth. The resistance of the Jews took various forms, both passive and active: mutual assistance; the development of Jewish culture and education; until October 1941-emigration from Germany , in particular, Zionist emigration to Palestine; attempts to obtain “Aryan” documents or “improve” Jewish ones; life in the Reich in an illegal situation; sabotage of work for the Nazis; anti-fascist propaganda, distribution of newspapers and leaflets exposing Nazi anti-Semitism; escapes and uprisings in ghettos and concentration camps; fighting with weapons in partisan detachments and in the armies of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition; participation in intelligence work on the side of Great Britain, the USSR, the United States.
Keywords. Nazi anti-Semitism; Jewish organizations in the Third Reich; the Holocaust; Jewish Anti-Hitler Resistance in Germany 1933-1945.

Khotko S.H. (Maykop, Republic of Adygea). Gift exchange in Circassian social practice: princely gifts, aristocratic and commoner wastefulness, sacred gifts

Samir Hamidovich Khotko
Ph.D. in History,
Principal Researcher of the Ethnology and Folk Art Department,
Adygean Republican Institute of
Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev.
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop,
Krasnooktyabrskaya, 13.
E-mail: inalast@mail.ru 

Annotation. This article is an experience of considering the social practices and institutions of the Circassians on the basis of the anthropological concept of the gift. In the sphere of social relations, gift exchange permeated all customs and was a universal form of communication. The suzerain-vassal and, more broadly, the patron-client relationship were strengthened through gifting and acted in the form of an exchange of patronage and service. The homage in the Circassian version was accompanied by the donation of weapon, armor, bowl, drinking horns, land or manor with the dependent peasants. From that moment on, Circassian warrior assumed the duties of a vassal (wuork). This gift had its own name — wuorktyn («wuork gift»). Vassal-overlord gift-exchange also took place at the foreign policy and diplomatic level. Circassian princes received gifts of honor (the so-called fur coats of honor, gold and silver cups, monetary salaries), in turn, presented their overlords (Crimean khans, Ottoman sultans, Russian tsars) with weapons, armor and horses.
The aristocratic ethos was inextricably linked with the manifestation of generosity, the constant distribution of all types of movable and immovable property, sometimes on the verge of potlatch. Observers reported that the Circassians were gripped by a mania to give and receive gifts. This is far from a unique feature, on the contrary, it makes the Circassians in common with the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands (B. Malinowski), the French nobility of the 18th century (N. Elias). Uneven gifting to persons who were equal in public opinion or in terms of class, and, on the contrary, the equal bestowing of unequal persons could cause conflict. The daily forms of gift exchange were hospitality and kunachestvo (proxenia). They exchanged not only objects, but also signs of attention, services, caring for horses, etc. Feasts and all joint meals were a common form of gift (A. Gurevich). The last great gift for the Circassian was a crowded funeral, accompanied by funeral feasts, games, the erection of a mound, sacrifices of horses, the offering of funeral gifts in the form of weapons and utensils. One of the most archaic and important forms of the gift was sacred gifts, offerings to the gods in the form of cult ceremonies, sacrifices, arrangement of sacred groves.
Keywords: gift exchange theory, potlatch, symbolic capital, aristocratic ethos, generosity, hospitality, sacred gifts, tumulus, horse sacrifices.

Hippolitov G.M. (Samara). From the history of the propaganda work of the political agencies of the Eastern Front (1918 – 1919)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Information Technology (Samara)
443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23.
Email: gippolitov@rambler.ru

Annotation. The history of the Civil War in Russia (1918 – 1920) testifies, in particular, to the fact that it was then that the system of party political work in the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA) was formed, strengthened and successfully functioned. Political bodies became one of the structural elements of this system. They had (in terms of their functioning) a dual character: on the one hand, as the leading party bodies of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) ruling in Soviet Russia [RCP (b)] in the Red Army, which united, first of all, all army communists; on the other hand, as military-administrative apparatus subordinate to the corresponding army command. the activities of political bodies were extremely multifaceted. This article is a fragment of the future monograph “Political Work in the Red Army on the Eastern Front. 1918 – 1919 (based on materials from the Volga region and the Southern Urals) “, which the author has been developing for about two years. The article highlights one aspect of the activities of the political bodies of the Eastern Front – propaganda work, mainly in the troops of the army in the field. The source base of the study is diverse and representative. The archival component also occupies a corresponding place in it.
Keywords: party political work, political bodies, agitation, propaganda, the Red Army, rallies, meetings, conversations.

Salnikov A.A. (Moscow). The government of I.S. Silaev as a mechanism of the sovereignization  of RSFSR in 1990 – 1991

post-graduate student
Section of   Russian History of XX-XXI centuries
of Department of History
of Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Specialty 07.00.02 “Russian history”.
119192, Moscow, Lomonosov Prospect, 27, korp. 4,
E-mail: A2971106@yandex.ru

Annotation: this article considers the structure, personal staff and activity of the first Silaev`s government and short but very complicated process of Russian struggle for sovereignty, which had started before Yeltsin became the head of Supreme Soviet of RSFSR, and before Silaev became prime-minister. Special attention is given to the economic block of the first Silaev`s government and to power bodies, which first time appeared in the structure of the Council of Ministers of RSFSR during the struggle for Russian sovereignty in years 1990 – 1991. In this article as a special block was considered the question of representation of different elite groups in the government and their influence on the acute struggle for Russian sovereignty. The main conclusion of the article is that the personal staff of this government was recruited for attracting different elite groups, and it`s structure was aimed for independence of Russia from Soviet Union. As a result of activity of this government, the RSFSR headed by B.N. Yeltsin even before the august 1991, had captured many “control levers” from the USSR.
Keywords: first Silaev`s government, struggle for Russian sovereignty, directors’ corpus, the collapse of USSR

Solopov A. P. (Moscow). Characteristic features of tobacco advertising in the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX-beginning of the XX century as an element of urban everyday life

Master of Arts Student,
Department of Russian History of the
Nineteenth – Early Twentieth Century,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russian Federation, 119234, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4.
E-mail: arssolopov@mail.ru

The article presents an analysis of a number of typical methods of interacting with the target audience inherent in Russian tobacco advertising of the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The study examines the use of various factors and methods of influencing potential buyers, typical for atmospheric advertising, which undividedly dominated the advertising market in the period under review. Advertising made it possible to aestheticize and ritualize tobacco use, thereby not only increasing the sales of specific producers, but also consolidating this habit that came to Russia quite late in culture and everyday life, legitimizing it in the eyes of the public, and at the same time reflecting social, economic, cultural and psychological realities of its time, which made advertising posters and announcements a significant source for the study of urban everyday life.
Keywords. Advertising, smoking, tobacco products, poster graphics, ritualization, emancipation, patriotism.

Baranov A.V., Rozhkov A.Yu. (Krasnodar). The attitude of the peoples of the North Caucasus towards territorial military service in the second half of the 1920s: a comparative analysis

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Kuban State University, Head of the Department of Political Science and Political Management,
Russia, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya str., 149, room 237,
e-mail: baranovandrew@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Kuban State University, Head of the Department of Sociology,
Russia, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya str., 149, room 251, e-mail: avro14@mail.ru

Annotation. The scientific topic is relevant for understanding the causes and factors of the contradictory attitude of the peoples of the North Caucasus to conscription into the territorial military units of the Red Army, for understanding the methods of ideological influence of the authorities on conscripts. The purpose of the work is to determine the similarities and differences of the main peoples of the North Caucasus for conscription into the territorial military units of the Red Army in 1925—1929. The article is based on the historical new institutionalism. The paper defines the prerequisites for the contrasting perception of conscription and service: the presence of forms of autonomy among different peoples before the revolution, the degree of conflict with the Russian state, the military community (among the Cossacks). For their part, the regional authorities in the North Caucasus Region also implemented contradictory ideas: the need to ensure the ideological loyalty of conscripts —“changers” faced with their undesirable socio-class composition for the authorities (the predominance of wealthy strata). During the territorial service, the authorities sought to ensure the literacy of the residents and their ideological loyalty. But as the NEP was “curtailed” in 1926—1929, conscripts became more and more oppositional, which led to the curtailment of territorial national units in the 1930s.
Keywords: peoples of the North Caucasus, territorial military service, attitude, comparison, 1925—1929.

Sidorchuk I.V. (St. Petersburg). Activities of the Society of Friends of the Air Fleet in Petrograd/Leningrad (1923-1925)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Higher School of International Relations, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University; Associate Professor, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, St. Petersburg State University.
Russia, St. Petersburg, 195251, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya st., 29.
e-mail: sidorchuk_iv@spbstu.ru

Annotation. The Society of Friends of the Air Fleet (ODVF) was founded in March 1923 and was one of the first public organizations in the USSR. It existed only until 1925, and then it was merged with the Society of Friends of Chemical Defense and Chemical Industry (Dobrohim), as a result of which the Aviakhim Society appeared. This study is devoted to the activities of the ODVF in Petrograd / Leningrad – historically one of the leading centers for the development of aviation and aeronautics in Russia. The source base consists of published and archived regulatory documents, work plans and activity reports, materials of meetings of the Society’s cells, correspondence on organizational issues. The journals of the ODVF were also studied. As a result of the conducted research, the author comes to the conclusion that the activity of the Society was a really interesting undertaking, which skillfully combined festivities, training and fundraising for the development of the air fleet in its activities. In particular, citizens were offered a wide range of leisure practices that, through entertainment, formed a different attitude to aviation: they conveyed the idea of its importance, accessibility, benefits, etc. Much to its north-western branch the Society owes for its high ratings of work on a union scale – it has achieved significant success both in raising funds for the needs of the air fleet, and the elimination of aviation illiteracy and the mobilization of the population. This was facilitated by both the rich pre-revolutionary heritage, and a higher degree of loyalty of citizens to technology, which allowed them to let aviation into their daily life.
Keywords: Society of Friends of the Air Fleet, aviation, history of leisure, cultural and educational work, Aviakhim, public organizations.

Saypudinov M. Sh. (Makhachkala, Daghestan). History of the study of ceramics of the population of the Irganai Valley in the Middle Bronze Age

Junior researcher
Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Daghestan
Federal Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences
367030, Republic of Daghestan, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo st., 75
e-mail: Haosta@mail.ru

Annotation. At the turn of the Early and Middle Bronze Age, as well as throughout the entire Middle Bronze Age, significant changes took place in the ceramics of the North-Eastern Caucasus: new forms appeared and technology improved. At this time, changes were observed in the appearance of the local archaeological culture, which obviously found its reflection in the ceramic complexes. In the study of the culture of mountainous Dagestan of the Middle Bronze Age, an important place is occupied by the study of ancient pottery. There are practically no works in which approaches, methods, as well as the development of the views of researchers on ceramics of this period would be considered. The aim of this work is to review the approaches and methods of studying the ceramics of the monuments of the Irganai Valley in the Middle Bronze Age as a source for reconstruction and periodization, as well as the study of complex issues of cultural and historical development of the population of the Irganai Valley in the Middle Bronze Age.
Keywords: ceramics, middle bronze age, Irganai valley, North-Eastern Caucasus, historical and cultural approach, technology, forms, ornament.

Sidneva M.V. (Moscow). Akathist creativity of Andrey Fedorovich Kovalevsky

Postgraduate student of the Department of Church History,
Faculty of History, Lomonosov State University of Moscow
119192, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
Е-mail: marysidneva@gmail.com 

Annotation. The article is devoted to the akathist creativity of Andrei Fedorovich Kovalevsky (1840-1901), who was one of the most prolific Russian akathistographers of the 19th century, who created more than 68 hymns. The personality of A.F. Kovalevsky is poorly studied, his biography and creativity did not become the subject of separate study. The aim of the work is to analyse the author’s consciousness of the writer and the ways of its implementation in society as an akathistographer. The main source for the study is the letters of Andrei Fedorovich to Archimandrite Iakov (Pospelov) for the period from 1881 to 1894, in addition, biographical data contained in the writer’s journalistic articles were used. Based on the available sources, the facts of the biography of the hymnographer are reconstructed, an overview of well-known works is given, the issues of the author’s reflection, motives for writing texts, ways of self-realisation as a compiler of akathists in society are studied, the problems of interaction between the writer and the spiritual censorship are considered. The article highlights the activity of A.F. Kovalevsky as a professional hymnographer, who wrote hymns of different genres at the request of individuals or individual communities.
Keywords. A.F. Kovalevsky, Russian Orthodox akathist, akathist culture, akathist creativity, spiritual censorship, Kazan Mother of God Vysochinovsky Monastery.

Gessen V.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Some historical information about the fate of paintings and drawings by I.E. Repin (based on unpublished archival materials)

Ph.D. in Economics
Home ad dress: Russian Federaion,
196233 Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya 11/ 2, 140
e-mail: geen27@mail.ru

Annotation. This article is a continuation of our publications in “Klio” on the basis of a study of the materials located in the Central State Gallery of St. Petersburg on the topic “The defeat by the Bolsheviks of the collections of cultural objects in Petrograd in 1917-1925”. It provides information about the fate of a number of paintings and drawings by the artist I.E. Repin seized by the authorities from private collections. Some of them have been preserved in our museums, others have been taken abroad. The fate of many was tragic.
Keywords: paintings, drawings, I.E. Repin, “Department of Protection”, People’s Commissariat of Education, Petrograd, seizure, collections, document, archival materials.

Soboleva E. S., Sorokina S.P. (St. Petersburg). Sergei V. Geiman’s wanderings in the Americas

Cand. of Hist. Sci., Senior Research Fellow, Department of Ethnography of South and South-West Asia, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 3; e-mail: soboleva@kunstkamera.ru

Leading Museum Records Specialist, Department of Documentation, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 3;
e-mail:  msp@kunstkamera.ru 

Annotation. Sergei Veniaminovich Geiman (July 5, 1887 – August 1975) travelled all his long life. It was impossible to trace his biography, due to the fact that after the expedition to South America (1914-1915) he did not return to Russia. He lived in the USA and France, visited the USSR in 1960es and donated his notes and Asian and South American exhibits to the MAE. His diaries are sometimes emotional and filled with philosophical reflections about his life. His publications are a forgotten historical source. In this paper, for the first time, new materials are introduced into scientific circulation, revealing the American period of S.V. Geiman.
Keywords. Sergei V. Geiman, history, ethnography, America, Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.

Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). Historical experience of healing as a reason for reflection and action

Honorary Professor of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Law, Member of the Berlin
medical society, Acting State Advisor of the Russian Federation of the 1st class. 195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect, 11, office 1N.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Annotation. Recently, a new book by Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Professor L.A. Bulanov’s “Osteopathy at the fingertips” was published. The book has 210 pages, about 100 figures, diagrams and tables. It is dedicated to the history of human health, healthy lifestyle, methodological approach to human health. The book touches upon such problems as the theory of medicine, remedial physical culture, acupressure, Chinese remedial gymnastics, rational nutrition of people. The author looks at the problem through the prism of the history of medicine, including folk medicine. The author summarizes scattered materials and proves that all diseases are directly related to dysfunction of the spine. The book was approved by the Russian Book Union, published under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, with forewords by world-famous scientists.
Keywords. Bulanov L.A., history of medicine, osteopathy, spine, folk medicine.

Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Who unleashed World War II? New approaches to assessing major events

Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Honorary Worker
of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
consulting professor of the “Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin”.
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburg highway, 10.
E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Annotation. In the book of a professional military man, historian and journalist V.V. Menshikov presented an extended chronology of the events of 1918–1945. The reader is invited to conduct an essentially independent analysis of official figures, facts, chronology of events, on the basis of which one can be convinced of who exactly and why started the most destructive war in the history of mankind, which claimed more than 70 million human lives. The source base of labor is made up of information from the Internet. This approach has both strengths and weaknesses at the same time. Among the positive features can be called the ability for each reader to quickly follow the link to the source and get a more expanded understanding of the problem of interest. The publication is provided with numerous illustrations that allow the reader to thoroughly immerse themselves in the atmosphere of that time. I am impressed by the author’s position: V.V. Menshikov does not try to persuade the reader to his personal point of view, but suggests drawing independent conclusions based on what he has read.
Keywords. World War II, Germany, USSR, Great Britain, USA, V.V. Menshikov.

Zotova A.V. (St. Petersburg). V.G. Burkov: the last word in historical science

First Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Annotation. The article analyzes the content of the collection of works by the prominent Russian historian Vladimir Germanovich Burkov, who made a significant contribution to the development of vexillology, heraldry, phaleristics, as well as the history of international relations. After giving many years of teaching and research at the Faculty of International Relations of St. Petersburg State University, V.G. Burkov was an innovative scientist, a pioneer researcher, wrote works that were deep in content, concerning both the theory of faleristics and works directly related to domestic and foreign vexillology, heraldry and faleristics. In the last years of his life, Vladimir Germanovich paid special attention to the study of the history of international relations, the contribution of the organs of Soviet diplomacy to the development of relations between the Soviet Union and other states of the world. It is concluded that the works of V.G. Burkov are not only of great scientific value as research materials, but also outline the range of problems that require further study.
Keywords: V.G. Burkov, faleristics, vexillology, heraldry, history of international relations.