Klio #09 (201) 2023

Samoylov N.A., Maiatskii D.I. (St. Petersburg). Qing Calendars with diary notes by N. I. Voznesensky (1801-?)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Head of the Department of Theory of Asian and African Social Development,
Saint Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9.
E-mail: n.samoylov@spbu.ru

Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor,
Department of Chinese philology,
Saint-Petersburg State University (Russia)
199034, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7-9.
Е-mail: d.mayatsky@spbu.ru

Abstract. This article examines the previously unknown diary material by Nikolai Ivanovich Voznesensky (1801-?), who was a member of the Tenth Ecclesiastical Mission in Beijing (1821-1830). This material was recently discovered by the authors on the pages of Chinese manuscripts and woodcuts in the collection of rare books of the St. Petersburg State University Academic Library. The already known information about the life and work of N. I. Voznesensky is generalized and supplemented. For the first time in the corpus of Chinese books of St. Petersburg State University, the Voznesensky’s private book collection that he collected in China is revealed. The pages of five Chinese traditional woodcut calendars and one handwritten chronological reference book of the Daoguang era (1820-1850) belonged to him are being studied. The problem of the authorship of the diary notes made in these books is being solved. The contents of the diaries are considered and their significance for studying the history of the Russian Mission in Beijing is revealed. As an example, fragments are given that describe the activities of the Beijing Mission and the life of China during the Daoguang years.
Keywords: Qing China, Tenth Beijing Mission (1821-1830), Nikolai Ivanovich Voznesensky (1801-?), N. I. Voznesensky’s book collection, N. I. Voznesensky’s diaries

Nechaeva A.S. (Khabarovsk). Japan’s influence on the economic development of Manchukuo (1932-1945)

3rd year postgraduate student, INIA-1 group,
Historical sciences and archeology.
Far Eastern Institute of Management RANEPA.
680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, Muravyov-Amursky str., 33.
Email: nechaeva-angelica@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines legislative measures in the field of business development in the territory of the puppet state of Manchukuo in the 1932-1940s, carried out with the active participation of the Japanese side in preparation for the upcoming military campaign in the Pacific and the further development of the mobilization economy. Using documents from the archive of the Bureau of Russian Emigrants in the Manchurian Empire and the work of other researchers, the author examines the formation of the legislative framework in the economic sector and its impact on the further development of entrepreneurship. The article discusses changes in the tax system and export-import duties, the shortage of funds and attempts to resolve it through the introduction of a card system and additional currency issuance, the development of coal deposits, the extraction of aluminum, magnesium, copper, lead and zinc. The interest of the metropolis in the development of the oil refining and chemical industries was noted. It shows Japan’s interest in the development of agriculture in Manchuria due to the problems with food supply. The resolutions on the introduction of control in the trade area, which affected such goods as wool, hemp, dairy and meat products, agricultural crops, etc., were considered.
Keywords: North-East China, Manchuria, Harbin, World War II, Japanese occupation, economy of Manchuria, legislative acts, entrepreneurial activity

Shutman D.V., Ivanova A.M. (St. Petersburg). International relations in the field of space exploration on the example of cooperation between Russia and South Africa

Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor,
Department of Social and Political Sciences
The Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications
193232, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshevikov prospect, 22
E-mail: denis_sh2@mail.ru

Master, Faculty of Political Science
Department of Political Institutions and Applied Political Science,
St. Petersburg State University
191124, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolny st., 1/3
E-mail: singularienn@gmail.com

Abstract. Currently, the exploration of outer space is an important direction in the development of international relations, as well as a space for dialogue between States. This article is devoted to the relations between Russia and the Republic of South Africa in the field of space exploration. The relevance of this research lies in the growing interest in the space industry of states around the world, and cooperation in this direction is an important factor that contributes to the development of scientific and technical potential of states. The study examines the main aspects of cooperation between states, including the history of the development of relations in the space industry, since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Russian Federation and South Africa in 1992. The study examines the main projects carried out jointly in the field of space exploration and aimed at supporting the development of the space industry in South Africa – GLONASS, SumbandilaSat, Radiastron, etc. A comparative analysis of Russian-South African and American-South African cooperation in the space industry was also carried out. In the course of this analysis, potentially promising areas of development and obstacles to cooperation between the Russian Federation and South Africa in the field of space exploration were identified.
Keywords: Russia, South Africa, USA, international relations, space policy, space

Ladilova D.A. (St. Petersburg). Merchants Eliseevs: career and turmoil

Daria Alekseevna Ladilova
Head of the project “Museum of Eliseev Merchants” in St. Petersburg,
690087, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Nevsky av., 56,
E-mail: vip@kupetzeliseevs.ru

Abstract. The history of the Eliseev dynasty is of interest both to a wide range of readers and to the scientific research community. Having started a trading business in 1813, over the 100 years of its existence, the Eliseev Brothers company achieved significant success in the field of trade in the foreign and domestic markets, mainly engaged in the supply of colonial goods and foreign wines. In addition to trading activities, the Eliseevs were engaged in banking, charity and construction – in Moscow and St. Petersburg there are two stores built at the beginning of the 20th century by Grigory Grigorievich Eliseev, the last representative of the dynasty. This article aims to introduce previously unknown facts about G.G. Eliseev and provide additions to already known historical information, show all the originality of the most famous Russian family of merchants, the Eliseevs, and also trace the stages of formation, development and collapse of an outstanding dynasty of entrepreneurs and philanthropists.
Keywords: merchants in the Russian Empire, Eliseev family, Russian business, Eliseev Brothers firm, merchant dynasties, Grigory Grigorievich Eliseev, Vera Fedorovna Eliseevа

Vasilieva S.Yu. (Togliatti), Saifutdinova O.P. (Ufa). Features of application and methods of processing natural leather in Russia from ancient times to the first quarter of the 20th century: a historical aspect

PhD in History,
associate professor of Department of the History and Philosophy,
 Togliatti State University,
445020, Russian Federation, Togliatti, Belorusskaya st., 14,
E-mail: polkunova-su@yandex.ru

PhD in History,
assistant of Clothing Technology and Construction Department,
Ufa State Petroleum Technological University,
450064, Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Kosmonavtov st., 1,
E-mail: orreeoll@gmail.com

Abstract. The article discusses the methods of leather processing and the main stages in the development of leather business in Russia from its inception and up to the first quarter of the 20th century. Leatherwork among the ancient Slavs was an important aspect of their culture and way of life. It not only provided means for clothing and protection, but was also a symbol of the identity and spirituality of the Slavic people. Subsequently, the leather craft developed into industrial production in Russia and continued to play an important role in the country’s economy. Particular attention is paid to the methods of processing natural leather and their evolution. The authors come to the conclusion that by the beginning of the XX century. leather processing in Russia has reached a high level of skill.
Keywords: leather, leather dressing, skin treatment methods, tanning, embossing

Ziborov D.M. (Moscow). The Kulja campaign of General G. A. Kolpakovsky and the conquest of the Ili region in 1871

Applicant for a Degree Candidate of Historical Sciences
chair of Russian history of the
XIX century and the beginning of XX century,
Department of History,
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Moscow, Volzhsky boulevard, 21, 109462

Abstract. The article is devoted to the military campaign of 1871, held under the leadership of General G. A. Kolpakovsky, which led to the occupation of Kulja and the Ili Region by Russian troops. As a result of a massive Muslim uprising in the 1860s, a number of state entities emerged on the territory of Western China, one of which was the Ili Sultanate with its capital in Kulja, headed by A’la Khàn. Initially, Russia pursued a policy of non-interference in relation to the region, but this didn’t lead to stabilization of the situation. Trade was stopped, there were constant clashes and movements of the nomadic population on the border, there was a risk of the capture of Kulja by neighboring Yattishar, who had close ties with Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire. The attempts made to achieve a diplomatic settlement of relations with A’la Khàn were in vain. As a result, by 1871 The Russian authorities abandoned their previous course, and it was decided to conduct a military campaign to eliminate the Ili Sultanate and transfer its territory under the authority of the Qing Empire. The military campaign was authorized in St. Petersburg, but on the initiative of the Turkestan Governor-General K. P. von Kaufman and the Semirechensk Governor G. A. Kolpakovsky, it was carried out before obtaining consent from the Chinese authorities in May – June 1871. The Kulja expedition ended with complete success, the occupation of Ili region, the overthrow of the sultan with small losses on the Russian side, however, due to a number of circumstances, the occupied territory remained under the rule of the Russian Empire, which later served as an impetus to the so-called Ili crisis in Russian Chinese relations.
Keywords: Russian Empire, China, G. A. Kolpakovsky, Kulja, Ili crisis, East Turkestan

Erdokesko E.A. (Moscow). The development of the Stamboli tobacco factory in 1897-1911

Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian History of the 19th and early 20th Centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
119234, Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27-4
E-mail: ekaterina-erdokesko@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article analyzes the development of one of the largest and most successful tobacco enterprises on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, the Stamboli tobacco factory, during the management of V.O. Stamboli’s sons: Isaac, Moses and Joseph. The author examines the dynamics of the number of employees, production rates, products sold, points of sale, staff working environment, as well as the main achievements of the enterprise. The author also considers the organization of the distribution of roles in the management of the Feodosiya enterprise.

As a result, it is concluded that the rational distribution of roles in the management of the factory, where each of the sons of V.O. Stamboli was able to show his best qualities, improving the quality of manufactured products, increasing the production of smoking tobacco and cigarettes due to market demand for these products, allowed not only to increase the fortune, but also significantly expand the heritage inherited from V.O. Stamboli factory.
Keywords: Tauric province, Crimea, tobacco cultivation, the Stamboli tobacco factory, cigarettes, shag tobacco

Vladimirova M.A. (Murino). The image of a tax inspector in diaries and official documents

Postgraduate student of Russian History, St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences
188677, Россий, Murino, Ekaterininskaya, 22, building 1.
E-mail: reborn2718@mail.ru

Abstract. This article presents a comparison of the image of a taxable inspector using official documents located in the Russian State Historical Archive and the diary of a taxable inspector Alexei Ivanovich Konorov. It is often possible to observe that due to the dry data of reports on the work of various organizations, we build an idealized image of a person working in it. The diary gives, albeit subjective, an idea of how the tax inspector’s service actually took place and what problems they experienced. A.I. Kononov was not an average tax inspector of the European part of the Russian Empire, since he spent most of his career in the Kingdom of Poland. However, the working moments described by him largely agree with what was spelled out in the regulations and instructions. Thanks to his notes, small additions to the instructions were discovered. The tax inspector also describes various life moments that are reflected in this article and which paint the image of the tax inspector more human and more fully reveal his work.
Keywords: tax inspector, diary, auditor, Russian Empire, taxes, inspections

Zhengnan Zhao (Moscow). The role of the Sokhrannaya kazna in the economic life of the women’s communities of the Moscow eparchy in the first half of the 19th century

Postgraduate student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1. 119234
E-mail: zznnatasha@gmail.com

Abstract. The economic life of the women’s communities of the 19th century had its own characteristics. The article deals with an important element in the economic life of three Women’s communities that emerged in the Moscow eparchy in the first half of the 19th century: perpetual tickets of the Conservation treasury. Based on archival materials, the author examines how the communities received the tickets and how they used the interest on them. At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the Sokhrannaya kazna had already become one of the largest credit institutions in Russia. Banking activity also began to occupy a remarkable place in economic life of the church. The article notes that, unlike most monasteries at that time, which used tickets to increase capital, the tickets of the women’s communities in the Moscow eparchy were, above all, a guarantee of their survival and subsequent development. The author points out that the structure of the economic life of the women’s communities was quite simple. In the case of the Moscow eparchy, the interest on the tickets was often even the only item of great income. Thus, this item largely determined the economic level of the communities and was an important guarantee that soon after their establishment the communities could apply for legal status and transform themselves into monasteries, provided they did not receive support from the state treasury. The author notes that the women’s communities in the Moscow eparchy were the result of a desire for traditional spiritual practices, but their development from the very beginning was closely tied to the newest economic factors of the secular world of that time.
Keywords: women’s communities, Sokhrannaya kazna, Anosin community, Spaso-Borodino community, Trinity Odigitrievskaya community, Moscow eparchy, economic life of women’s communities, Russian Orthodox Church

Trey T.I. (Moscow). The development of non-state charity in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the All-Russian Union of Russian Figures for Public and Private Charity)

Lomonosov State University, 2nd year postgraduate student, Department of History of State and Municipal Administration
107150, Moscow, Ivanteevskaya street, 28
e-mail: timur173rus@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article examines the development of private philanthropic activity in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The focus of the study is on the work of one of the iconic charitable organizations of that time – the All-Russian Union of Russian Figures for Public and Private Charity. The goals and means of the work of this institution are analyzed from the moment of its foundation until the beginning of the First World War. Separately, the article discusses in detail the structure of the Union, the functions of its bodies, such as the General Meeting, the Council, the Board, etc. The article also reports on the results achieved by the mentioned organization. They are mainly represented by the work of the two congresses of the Union, held in 1910 and 1914. They made decisions that are fundamentally important for the further implementation of charitable policy in the country. At the same time, relying on the work of some previous authors who studied the Union, we can say about the inferior results of its activities: not everything that was planned by the leadership of the Union was realized. For this, the author of the article found his own explanation – for 5 years of its existence, the indicated association of philanthropists has not yet reached the peak of its capabilities, the outbreak of the world war prevented the gradual strengthening of this charitable association. The presented article also highlights the relationship of the Union with the imperial government, to which it was supposed to obey, while receiving support from it.
Keywords: Early 20th century, Russia, private charity, union, congress

Vasilieva S.Yu. (Togliatti). The light industry of the Urals and the fashion industry in the daily life of the population of the region in the era of industrialization

PhD in History,
associate professor of Department of the History and Philosophy,
 Togliatti State University,
445020, Russian Federation, Togliatti, Belorusskaya st., 14,
E-mail: polkunova-su@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the process of development of light industry in the Urals in the 1930s. on the materials of the state archives of the Russian Federation. The light industry of the Urals during the years of the first five-year plans was represented by the leather, clothing, textile, footwear and glass industries. One of the important indicators of the development of the light industry is the diversity of the product range and its quality. This paper analyzes the assortment range of the main branches of the light industry in the region, the material and technical base of enterprises, and the volume of goods produced. An attempt was made to trace the fashion trends of this period in the country as a whole, and in the region in particular.
Keywords: light industry, assortment, products, fashion trends, Ural

Yakhimovich S.Yu. (Khabarovsk). “On new rails, a new national existence”: trade unions and economic associations of Russian emigration to Manchukuo (1934 – 1945)

Ph. D in History, Associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of social and humanitarian and economic disciplines
Far Eastern law Institute of the Ministry of interior Affairs of Russia.
680020, Russia, Khabarovsk, 15 Kazarmenny Lane.
E-mail: sergyahim-69@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the little-studied problems of the socio-economic aspect in the life of the Russian colony in Manchukuo, namely, the development of emigrant trade unions and economic societies with similar functions here. Chronologically, this period covers 1934 – 1945. The difficult political situation in Manchuria after the Japanese occupation seriously shook the already low standard of living of Russian emigrants. Various labor associations that have existed here since the 1920s have tried to help rectify the situation with the improvement of the financial situation of emigration and a decrease in the unemployment rate in its ranks. After the proclamation of the puppet Manchurian state as an empire in 1934, the Bureau for Russian Emigrants was created by the efforts of the Japanese military mission, which supervised, as a single organization, the activities of all emigrant associations, including those of a professional nature. The article establishes that all trade unions and economic associations of emigrants experienced centralized management and indoctrination in the spirit of Japanese political views of that time. With the increasing military danger in Manchuria, this pressure on professional organizations only increased. At the same time, the economic and legal protection of working Russian emigrants not only did not increase, but on the contrary, decreased. This was facilitated by the gradual incorporation of officially authorized emigrant trade unions and societies into the state-economic model of Manchukuo, which existed in the military field. It is concluded that as a result of this, the functions of trade unions and economic associations of Russian emigration began to be reduced to helping the state in the distribution of products and general consumer goods, and they themselves turned into obedient and uncomplaining executors of the orders of the Japanese-Manchurian military administration.
Keywords: Manchuria, trade union, society, economic association, emigrants, Bureau for Russian Emigrants

Akopyan Z.V. (Pyatigorsk). The General plan for the development of the administrative center of the North Caucasus Region and its change in 1936

Postgraduate Student, Chair of Historical and Social Philosophical
Disciplines, Oriental Studies and Theology
Pyatigorsk State University
ORCID:0000-0002-9759-7733 357352, Russia, 9, Kalinina Ave.
E-mail: zvakopyan@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the General Plan for the development of the city of Pyatigorsk, developed during the period of its new status – the center of the North Caucasus Region (1934 – May 1937). Developed by prominent metropolitan architects and specialists in the field of urban planning, the Master Plan involved the construction of a new administrative center in the city, the general reconstruction of the resort area and the development of the overall urban infrastructure. The most difficult and expensive was to be the first component, which assumed the creation of a completely new metropolitan look for a traditional resort town, although in the past it had intermittently served as a regional administrative center. The main developers of the project (Professor V.N. Semenov and his son V.V. Semenov-Prozorovsky), keen on the idea of creating a «Garden City», considered Pyatigorsk the most convenient object for the implementation of their plan. The author notes that after the government decision to move the center of the region to the city of Ordzhonikidze (Vladikavkaz), the developers of the General Plan shifted the center of gravity to the reconstruction plan of the resort. The previously planned large-scale development of the city has been revised. According to the developers, Pyatigorsk should not have expanded geographically and increased numerically. The whole life of the city was now to be subordinated to the task of servicing the resort.
Keywords: North Caucasus region, Caucasian Mineral Waters, «Garden City», administrative center, General Plan, reconstruction, resort town

Davydov A.Yu., Vorobieva I.A. (St. Petersburg). Show trials in 1937–1938-s in the Leningrad region (based on the materials of the “special folder” of the regional party organization)

Dr. Sci. (History), Professor of the
Department of Russian History (XIX–XXI centuries),
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia,
191186, Russia, St. Petersburg, Embankment of the river Moika, 48.
 e-mail: davydov.au@mail.ru 

judge of the Kuibyshevsky District Court of St. Petersburg,
191023, Russia, St. Petersburg, Karavannaya str., 20.
e-mail: vorobey22@mail.ru 

Abstract. The authors of the article pay attention to the important aspect of socio-political reality of 1937–1938 years — political show trials held in the Leningrad region following the example of the Moscow center. Its study is supported by the consideration of “special folder” materials of Leningrad regional Committee of All-Union Communist Party. “Special folder” is a set of secret documents that were classified in a result of discussion of non-public issues at closed-door sessions of party members. It is referring to the record keeping carried out by the special sector of the regional committee created in 1934. This sector’s materials are kept in 24 fund (inventory 2 a) of the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documents in St. Petersburg (CSAHPD SPb). Analyzing the secret protocols and travaux preparatoires the authors come to the conclusion that the trials of party, Soviet and economic leader groups in certain districts in most cases were inspired by All-Union Communist Party members. He dwells in detail on district court proceedings, during which local chiefs were declared “right-wing enemies” with responsibility for all the failures in agrarian policy. Attention is paid to the unsuccessful attempt to organize a trial of the Leningrad Regional and City Committee leaders of All-Union Communist Party in 1938.
Keywords: political show trial, special folder, bureau of the Leningrad Regional Committee of All-Union Communist Party, “right-wing enemies”, B.P. Posern, I.I. Ermolin

Ivanenko Ya.I. (Belgorod). On the issue of the experience of applying the Fergana method of construction in the road sector of the Kursk region during the 3rd Five-Year Plan

postgraduate student of the Department
of Russian history and pre-study
Belgorod State National Research University,
308015, Russian Federation, Belgorod, Pobedy st. 85
E-mail: shlif89@yandex.ru

Abstract. In the article, based on the study of documents from the State Archive of the Kursk Region, the State Archive of the Socio-Political History of the Kursk Region and materials from regional periodicals, the experience of using the Fergana method of construction in the road sector of the Kursk Region during the 3rd Five-Year Plan is analyzed. The origin of the name and the essence of this method are explained, a list of specific routes was identified, the construction of which was carried out by this method, conclusions were drawn about the effectiveness of its use and the role it played in the development of the road network of the Kursk region during the subject period. At the same time, the problems that existed in this area, and the ways to solve them, undertaken by the party and state bodies of the Kursk region, are analyzed.
Keywords: Kursk region, third five-year plan, roads, road construction, public construction, labor participation of the population

Tupikin P.A. (Moscow). Development of relationships between Kremlin and White House in December 1941 – June 1942

applicant of Department of Russian History XX-XXI centuries
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Leninskie Gory, 119192, Russia, Moscow,
Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27k4
E-mail: tupikin.p@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the process of development of Soviet-American relations after Washington’s entry into the war in December 1941. On the one hand, the United States is becoming a full–fledged ally of Moscow, on the other hand, the problems associated with changes in the volume of lend-lease supplies, the development of relations between the two powers in the Far East, as well as Japan’s reaction to them are intensifying. In addition, the problem of opening a “second front” has acquired significant importance, especially since each of the parties adhered to its own political and strategic course on this issue. As a result, contradictions accumulated, complicating military-political cooperation between the two powers and it took a considerable amount of mutual concessions to maintain positive relations in this difficult period from a military point of view.
Keywords: The Big Three, Lend-Lease, the Second Front, Soviet-American cooperation, V. M. Molotov’s mission, The Great Patriotic War

Tribunsky S.A. (Samara). Cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945): Soviet historiography of the problem. Article two. Analysis of Soviet historiographic sources (second half of the 1960s – first half of the 1970s)

Abstract. Through the repeated efforts of more than one generation of Soviet historians, it was proved that one of the significant reasons for the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945) was the fact that in the Armed Forces of the Soviet state the function established, moreover, efficiently and qualitatively, the system of party-political work. Its constituent element was cultural and educational work, which had a small degree of independence. In the process of studying these unique phenomena, a large array of historiographical and historical sources has accumulated in Soviet historical science. Moreover, many of them saw the light in the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1970s. That is, at the time when the historiographic process of partial resuscitation of Stalinist approaches in the theory and methodology of Soviet historical science began, and then began to increase efforts and pace (they, as you know, were somewhat undermined during the Khrushchev thaw). This article is a logical continuation of the article “Cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War (06/22/1941 – 05/09/1945): Soviet historiography of the problem. Article one. Analysis of Soviet Historiographic Sources (second half of the 1950s – first half of the 1960s)”, published in this journal [Klio. 2023. No. 02 (194) Feb. P. 19-32]. The subject of this study is the established Soviet historiographic research tradition of studying the topic of cultural and educational work in the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War, the views of Soviet historians, the analysis of the process of accumulation and increment of historical knowledge, the depth of scientific development of the topic mentioned above, in the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1970s. Based on the results of studying our problem, some of its main historiographical tendencies are synthesized. The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. There are no copyright claims for the completeness of the coverage of the problem.
Keywords: Red Army, cultural and educational work; party political work; historiographic source; historiographic analysis; historiographic trends; the second half of the 1960s – the first half of the 1970s

Trukhin M.A. (Barnaul). The struggle of the staff of the OBKhSS with economic crimes in the Altai Territory (1945-1953)

Director of the Altai Institute of Economics St. Petersburg University of Technology Management and Economics Candidate of Law, Associate Professor 656011, Barnaul, 106e Lenin Ave., Russia
e-mail: trukhin1975@bk.ru

Abstract. At the time of the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union had a difficult socio-economic situation caused by large human and material losses, serious expenditures on the defense complex associated with the beginning of the confrontation with the United States and its allies (the “Cold War”). Economic crimes to one degree or another undermined the socialist system that existed in the country at that time, although to a certain extent they were provoked by the ban on the implementation of any commercial activity. In turn, the existing shortage in products, goods and services among the population tried to satisfy “shadow dealers”, whose activities often fell under criminal law. The fight against economic crimes in the Altai Territory in 1945-1953 was carried out by employees of the OBKHSS (department for combating theft of socialist property), whose staffing was relatively small. Policemen actively used ag in their activities.
Keywords: OBKHSS, speculation, agents, Altai Territory, police

Likhachev V.G. (St. Petersburg). Training of personnel of ordinary seafarers in maritime schools of the North-West of the RSFSR in 1946-1953

Teacher, State University of Sea and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarov, College;
192148, St. Petersburg, Bolshoi Smolensky Prospekt, 36, College of the State University of Medical Sciences and Physics
e-mail: suna-kivach@yandex.ru

Abstract. This article discusses the processes, problems and technologies related to the training of ordinary naval personnel in the maritime specialized schools of the North-West in the RSFSR in the period from 1940 to 1953, using the example of the Kaliningrad Maritime Fishing School, as well as the Leningrad Maritime School.

The article considers aspects related to the problems of development and formation of the civil fleet of the North-West of the RSFSR in the post-war years. Special emphasis is placed on the problems of the development of processes related to the training of personnel of the civil fleet of the North-West of the RSFSR in the years after the war – 1946-1953.

The reasons and consequences that predetermined the lack of the necessary personnel potential of the necessary in-demand specialists who could provide the necessary level of operation of vessels are highlighted. This article also identifies the reasons associated with the transformations of the personnel of seaworthy vessels, including those related to the composition of the entire officer corps for this period.

The directions of state support aimed at training personnel have been identified, priorities and necessary directions have also been identified in order to open new specialized schools.
Keywords: naval personnel, nautical schools, training, personnel, fishing school, civil fleet

Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). The study and life of MIIT students on the pages of the newspaper “Stalinets” in 1953-1956

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
of the Department of History of the Academy of Basic Training
Russian University of Transport RUT (MIIT)
 22 Novosushchevskaya Street, Moscow, 127055
e-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the everyday life of students and teachers of MIIT in 1953-1956. based on the materials of the newspaper “Stalinets”. The stylistics and content of the articles of the publication are analyzed, special attention is paid to the problems that worried the authors of the newspaper. Such issues as criticism of students and teachers, the uniqueness of the educational process, academic performance, conflicts, absenteeism, equipment of the university laboratories with the latest equipment for its time, food in student buffets, humor are considered. It is concluded that the newspaper “Stalinets” was a kind of moral tuning fork, through which the public learned the names and surnames of the heroes and antiheroes of the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers. The newspaper was open for feedback; not infrequently comments on certain articles appeared in the following issues. “Stalinist” during the period under review demonstrates the daily life of MIIT students during the “early thaw”, the relative freedom of expression that appeared in this regard, strengthening criticism and self-criticism. The materials of the newspaper “Stalinets” for 1953-1956 have not yet been the object of scientific analysis. The intra-university press is one of the most reliable sources on the history of everyday life of educational institutions.
Keywords: MIIT, “Stalinist”, everyday life, lectures, humor, reports

Orlov A.S., Pozdnyakov A.V., Lisichnikov D.O. (Orel). The problem of Russia’s national security in the context of civilizational contradictions

PhD in History
Federal Guard Service Academy, 302015, Priborostroinelnaya street, 35, Orel
e-mail: orlov-orl@mail.ru

Candidate of Philosophy
Federal Guard Service Academy, 302015, Priborostroinelnaya street, 35, Orel
e-mail: orlov-orl@mail.ru

Federal Guard Service Academy, 302015, Priborostroinelnaya street, 35, Orel
e-mail: orlov-orl@mail.ru

Abstract. In this article, the authors consider the issues of Russia’s national security in the context of the geopolitical processes of the past and present. Proceeding from the ongoing processes of civilizational contradictions between Russia and the West, the authors of the article analyze the existing directions of the country’s state security, which are reflected in the relevant documents: the “Law on Security” and the “National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation “. The article expresses the position on the relevance of the means and measures to ensure state security, which are formulated in the new “National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation” dated July 02, 2021. Also, within the framework of the article, civilizational contradictions are defined as hostile, initiated by the countries of the “outer crescent”. The authors support their ideas with both theoretical positions of past and present geopolitics, military and political expert assessments of the American RAND Corporation, and historical facts. The article argues the point of view that the contradictions that have developed between Russia and the United States are not a consequence of any political decisions and actions of the “present day”. This is the result of a systematic and ongoing geopolitical confrontation for more than two hundred years that has unfolded between the “Land states” (of which the Russian Federation is the main representative) and the “Sea states” (of which the United States of America is the main one today). Relying on the laws and postulates of geopolitics, the authors draw a logical conclusion that the final resolution of the aggravated contradictions is currently impossible.
Keywords: national security; heartland; “land countries”; “sea countries”; Corporation RAND; civilization; geopolitics

Gao Mingyue (Vladivostok). Russian entrepreneur Lopato in China

Post-graduate student of the Department of History and Archeology of the Far Eastern Federal University,
10, Ajax, o. Russian, Vladivostok, 690922, Russian Federation
е-mail: 550363980@qq.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the entrepreneurial experience of the well-known Russian company Ilya Aronovich Lopato (1874 – 1934) and his brother Abram, which successfully operated in China at the beginning of the 20th century. Advertising, favorable economic opportunities and technical equipment have contributed to the enterprise, which has gained great popularity in China.

The publication provides a review of the literature in Russian and Chinese on the commercial activities of the Lopato brothers, reveals changes in the name of the company (“Tobacco Company A. Lopato and Sons”, “British Joint Stock Company A. Lopato and Sons”, “Union Tobacco Company” and “British-American Tobacco Company”, with addresses of the enterprise. One of the buildings of the Lopato company is registered as a historical monument and protected by the state (Yiman Street, No. 69, Nangan District). Social and charitable activities of the Lopato brothers are especially emphasized.

Based on the widespread use of rare documents found in foreign archives and libraries (printed editions of emigrants are in the USA and China), as well as in personal collections, we made a brief analysis of the activities of the Lopato company. The trademark of the Lopato brothers is also known in modern China. The author also conducted field research at the addresses of this company.
Keywords: I.A. Lopato, advertising, Russians in China, Russian business in China, Russian emigration

Kaleda G.K. (Moscow). The image of Rasputin in the eyes of the public in the context of the personnel policy of the supreme power

Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the 19th century – early 20th century
Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Russia, Moscow, st. Profsoyuznaya, 144.
e-mail: kaledageorge97@gmail.com

Abstract. The author of the article analyzes the process of creating the image of Rasputin in 1915-1916 as a person who had a decisive influence on personnel policy in the government according to the public opinion. In the spring of 1915, the government faced a political crisis due to the retreat of the Russian army at the front. The opposition secured the appointment of a number of ministers who enjoyed public confidence. However, they were soon dismissed. The public associated the government reshuffle with the influence of dark forces, personified by Rasputin. First, the opposition press, and then the deputies of the State Duma began openly accusing the ministers of having ties with the “elder” Grigory. The only way to fight on the part of the authorities was a ban on publications in the press about Rasputin. However, the white stripes in the newspapers only worsened the situation, contributed to the spread of rumors, speculation and new attacks from the opposition. In the end, unfounded accusations of the authorities in connection with the dark forces became a universal means of political struggle. Everyone knew that Grigory Yefimovich was a friend of the royal family. It was impossible to openly criticize the emperor, especially during the war, so Rasputin, who was patronized by the tsar, was blamed for everything.
Keywords: Grigory Rasputin, State Duma, Nicholas II, opposition, image, ministerial leapfrog

Lapina I.Yu., Kargapoltsev S.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Worldview component of the course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood”

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. Based on the intellectual heritage of the past and modern historiography, the authors of the article reflect on the problem of shaping the worldview of young people as part of the course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood”. In their opinion, the main state ideas that need to be explained in the process of reading this course are the ideas of citizenship, patriotism, and the preservation of traditional cultural values. It is noted that the impetus for strengthening the work to form a strong ideological position among young people was powerful geopolitical challenges designed to undermine the foundations of Russian statehood. The authors of the article offer their own algorithm of actions to form among young people a clear understanding of the moral values of a modern Russian. It is emphasized that the foundation for studying the course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood” should be a strictly scientific understanding of the modern worldview.
Keywords: Russian statehood, worldview, youth, patriotism, digitalization of the state

Zotova A.V., Poltorak S.N. (St. Petersburg). Borders of the post-Soviet space: management problems

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Faculty of International Relations,
St. Petersburg State University.
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9.
e-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

Dr. Sc. (Historical), Professor
Professor of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University
195251, Russia, St. Petersburg, Politekhnicheskaya st., 29
е-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

Abstract. Based on the analysis of modern documents, the article examines the state of customs interaction between states within the post-Soviet borderland. The dynamics of both bilateral and multilateral relations between states, former union republics of the USSR, and now independent state entities are traced. The process of formation of the customs structure in the post-Soviet space, the methods of their interaction and the frequency of mutual communication are examined in detail. In the article, the authors analyze the efficiency of the customs services of states in the post-Soviet space, the degree of mutual trust of these structures. Based on the presented statistical data, conclusions are drawn about the results of practical work. Information is provided that goes beyond the scope of purely working contacts: in particular, it reports on the training of future customs officers of a number of states at the Russian Customs Academy under the Federal Customs Service. The authors conclude that the borderlands reflect the true state of relations between states, warning the parties both about mistakes in interaction and about the correctness of the chosen path of bilateral relations.
Keywords: Post-Soviet space, border, bilateral relations, border management, customs