Klio # 1 (145) 2019



Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The second century of the Far East history………………………………13

Studying the history of our country, I have noticed many times that the Far East, especially the Soviet one, has always lived its own life-history. European destiny adhered badly to it, and the neighboring one too – Chinese, Korean, Japanese. The Russian, Soviet Far East is surprisingly distinctive in its past and present, although, of course, inseparable from its state, from its neighbors. It absorbs a lot and at the same time manages to be itself. In this it is very similar to Petersburg.

For a long time, I tried to understand the originality of this land and the people living in it. In short, it consists in the feeling of the Far-Eastern freedom of spirit and self-esteem. Such mentality is peculiar to all people of the region. It permeates their whole being, all their deeds. This, in my opinion, distinguishes the scholarly work of historians of the Far East.

Last year, our Far Eastern colleagues celebrated the centenary of the beginning of historical education, history in this important region of Russia. In the conditions of the sharply increased importance of the Far East in the development of our state, the achievements of local historians need increased attention. For one hundred years, our own traditions of the Russian Far Eastern historical school have been developed, based on the experience of both domestic and foreign historical schools, especially China and Japan. This is noticeable in the content of thousands of monographs and scholarly articles published in the Russian Far East over the past decades. This is evidenced by the work of historians of Blagoveshchensk, Vladivostok, Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, included in this issue of the monthly journal for scholars “Klio”.

The January issue includes informative articles on source studies, historiography, materials on general history, history of international relations, history of culture, military history, history of science and technology Their authors are well known for their publications both in Russia and abroad. Many of them successfully work in dissertation councils, prepare their students for research activities — future candidates and doctors of sciences, teach in higher educational institutions, and work in research institutions.

The articles in this issue introduce into the scholarly circulation a significant layer of new documents and materials, allowing a qualitatively new level to look at the events of the history of the 19th–20th centuries. The history of relations between Russia and China, Korea, and the peculiarities of the work of various faiths outside our country are traditionally analyzed. The development of culture, science, power structures in the Far East and their interaction with Moscow are investigated. The US influence on the situation in the Far East is also not ignored.

From the publications in this issue, it can be seen that the Far Eastern historians are a powerful scholarly force, capable of solving major research tasks of increased complexity. It also impresses that historians of the Russian Far East are an inseparable part of Russian scholarship, developing on the basis of the joint achievements of the entire corpus of domestic researchers in the field of all historical specialties.

This issue of the magazine convincingly shows the creative potential of historians from the cities of the Far East. There is no doubt that this number of the journal “Klio” will allow domestic and foreign colleagues to learn more about the scholarly interests and achievements of historians in the region, will provide an opportunity to strengthen the scholarly interaction.





Salogub Y.L. (Saint Petersburg). «Gloomy thoughts come to my mind when I thought about the questions of what we will do with Liaodong…». Reflections of S.I. Kerbedz…………………………………………….15

YANA LEONIDOVNA SALOGUB — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of State and Legal Disciplines, Saint Petersburg Academy of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, 190000, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Moika Embankment, 96. E-mail: salogub66@mail.ru

The article introduces a historical source into the scientific circulation – a letter from Stanislav Ippolitovich Kerbedz, Vice-Chairman of the Board of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) Society, to Emiliy Karlovich Ziegler von Schaffhausen, Director of the Department of Railway Affairs of the Ministry of Finance. A typewritten copy of the letter is preserved in case no. 130 “Proceedings of the Highest Established meeting on the management of the Kwantung Peninsula” 560 of the Fund (Ministry of Finance. General office of the Minister of Finance. 1801–1918) of the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg). Several aspects can be distinguished from the content of the document. First of all, the details of the tense relationship between the representatives of the Military and Maritime agencies in the expansion of Russian influence in Manchuria are revealed. According to the author, the main problems were departmental disunity, the lack of a single management vertical, and the apparent reluctance of representatives of various departments to join forces to solve a common task and to share responsibility in case of failure. Secondly, the assessment of the administrative activities of the military in the management of the Asian suburbs of Russia deserves attention. The author notes the low level of culture and the narrowness of the outlook of military officials from the rank and file and above, who have long served in Siberia and the Caucasus. In China, where representatives of civil administration had to interact with the local population belonging to the most ancient civilization and demonstrate to European diplomats and entrepreneurs the advantages of the Russian model of colonial administration, the lack of proper communication skills posed a real danger to Russia’s state interests.

Keywords: historical source, Kwantung Peninsula, Port Arthur, Chinese population, civil administration.


Medvedeva L.M., Lavrentiev A.V. (Vladivostok). Historical sources of the study the transport development of the Russian Far East (last quarter of the 20th century)……………………………………………….22

LIUDMILA MIKHAILOVNA MEDVEDEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Economics and Management, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service. 690014, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Gogol St., 41. E-mail: medvedeva_l@mail.ru

ALEXANDER VALENTINOVICH LAVRENTIEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Management, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service. 690014, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Gogol St., 41. E-mail: lavrist@list.ru

The article deals with the sources of information for studying the history of transport of the Russian Far East. The objective of the work is to open the originality and information resource of the legislative, office-based, and journalistic types of written sources used to study the history of transport in the last quarter of the twentieth century, the period being rather complex in terms of the characteristics of social development. This enables one to reveal some features of the formation of the historical source as an evidence of the past and an information carrier reflecting specific historical conditions. The article provides an assessment of materials on the development of communication lines, transport enterprises and their activities that the State archives contain. The specific features of work with the current archives, statistical data, and media materials have been pointed out in it. It has been emphasized that the available source materials have significant potential for further researches on the development of the transport system of the Russian Far East.

Keywords: historical source, archives, communication lines, transport, Russian Far East.





Pikalov Y.V. (Khabarovsk). Problems of studying the history of social development of the RSFSR Far East at the Soviet period in the domestic literature of 1925–1990………………………………….………….30

YURI VASILIEVICH PIKALOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Social-Humanitarian and economic disciplines of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 680020, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Kazarmennyi per., 15. E-mail: profiyvp@mail.ru

The history of social development of the Russian Far East has always been considered the least studied problem. On the one hand, it was an important indicator of the success of socialist reforms in the region, on the other hand – an ungrateful topic of historical research. Domestic literature of the period 1925–1990 reveals this feature of the study of social development of the region. The works of this period are divided into three stages. Their common characteristics allow to reveal the following features: scarcity; the predominance of scholarly articles; the small number of special works on the topic; linking the problems of social development with the context of the General economic and political development of the Far East of the RSFSR; methodological and methodological objectives of research; the lack of critical analysis in the works of historians; the presence of significant gaps in the chronology of research on this problem.

Keywords: social development, the Far East of the RSFSR, the Soviet period of history, historical research.


Shabelnikova N.A. (Vladivostok). A Great Victory in the memory of generations: World War II in contemporary historiography of the Far East……………………………………………………………..36

NATALIA ALEKSEEVNA SHABELNIKOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines, Vladivostok Branch of Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikov St., 21. E-mail: nhistorik@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of Far Eastern studies on the history of the Second World War. The author draws attention to the fact that the study of the history of the Second World War is one of the most developed research areas in modern Russian historiography. In the 2010s, the research interest in the history of the Second World War acquired a new content. An important factor that influenced this process was the participation of Russian researchers in international conferences, the expansion of the source base due to the ongoing declassification of archives. The article outlines the main directions of study of the topic and presents a brief description of them. The author comes to the conclusion that along with the emergence of new approaches to the assessment of events and phenomena of the Second World War, it is necessary to preserve all the valuable things created by researchers. The emergence of new areas of research create the basis for further study of the role of the Russian Far East in the Second World War.

Keywords: modern historiography, the Far East, Russia, the Second World War, study, main directions, new approaches.





Golovin S.A. (Blagoveshchensk). Mysteries of burials in Gur-Emir. Reconstruction of the appearance of Timurid………………………………………………………………………………………………43

SERGEY ALEKSANDROVICH GOLOVIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Russian History and Special Historical Sciences, Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University. 675000, Russian Federation, Amur Region, Blagoveshchensk, Lenina ul., 104. E-mail: gol_70@mail.ru

The presented article refers to the history of the functioning of the Soviet government-scientific commission, which in June 1941 opened the Timurid tomb in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand. The purpose of this article is to comprehend the results of its activities, which are inextricably linked with the scientific work of the outstanding Soviet anthropologist Mikhail Mikhailovich Gerasimov — the founder of the method of recreating a person’s appearance on a craniological basis. Until now, the history of this expedition is surrounded by an aura of mystery, its activities are described in historiography extremely contradictory, and the results have left many mysteries. This article focuses on the causes and scientific results of the expedition and the historical mysteries that it left us. Special attention is paid to the activities of M.M. Gerasimov to recreate portraits of the Timurid.Keywords: anthropology, restoration of the appearance of the skull, historical burial, mausoleum, sarcophagus, Emir Timur, Timurids.





Belyaeva N.A. (Vladivostok). Measures to protecting the interests of Vladivostok: discussion in the interdepartmental commission. 1903……………………………………………………………………..54

NATALYA ANATOL’EVNA BELYAEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines, Vladivostok branch of Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikova St., 21. E-mail: minava204@rambler.ru

The activity of the highest establishing interdepartmental Commission (1903) known as the “Romanov Commission” is considered. At its meetings, with the participation of representatives of different departments, military governors of the regions and merchants of the Amur region, the directions of further development of trade and customs policy in the region were discussed, the problems that became relevant after the abolition of Porto Franck were considered. One of them was to ensure the role of Vladivostok as a distribution point and a center of merchant shipping. Based on the study of archival documents from the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive and the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, a discussion was considered around two projects to overcome the commercial crisis of Vladivostok – the project “free Harbor”, developed on the initiative of local merchants under the leadership of the military Governor of the Primorsky region, and the project “free warehouses” proposed by the Department of customs duties. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of representatives of the local administration, the customs authority and the business community in order to enhance the role of Vladivostok in the economic life of the region.

Keywords: The Amur region, the abolition of the free-trade zone, the trade crisis, the Vladivostok merchant, transit trade, the highest established Commission, the free Harbor, free warehouses.


Ornatskaya T.A., Tsukanov S.S. (Khabarovsk). Law institutions of the Far Eastern Republic: organizational construction and recruitment…………………………………………………………………………….60

TATIANA ALEKSANDROVNA ORNATSKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Doctoral Student of the Far Eastern Federal University. 680000, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenin St., 40–58. E-mail: ota12@ya.ru

SERGEY SERGEEVICH TSUKANOV — Ph.D. in History, Academy of Metrology, Standardization and Certification. 680000, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Lenin St., 40–58. E-mail: ota12@ya.ru

The article highlights the difficulties of the formation of law institutions in the period of the Far Eastern Republic. The buffer state education in the Russian Far East absorbed both Soviet norms of law and norms of a non-Soviet nature. The dualism of approaches to the construction of the judicial system of the Far Eastern Republic has caused difficulties in the formation of the personnel of the judiciary. The article highlights the personnel problems faced by the management of the buffer in the acquisition of ships. Shows the difficulties of legal proceedings, which were primarily connected with the lack of clear approaches to the understanding of law, insufficient number of printed copies of the operating regulatory legal acts, the low qualification of the staff of grassroots judicial apparatus. The publication concludes on the importance of staff training. The authors note that the entry of the Far East into the legal field of the RSFSR aggravated the problem of professional readiness of personnel, revealed insufficient knowledge of the legislation by representatives of the Far Eastern judiciary, and necessitated the expansion of the system of professional training of lawyers.

Keywords: the Far East, lawyers, judicial system, law enforcement agencies, professional training.


Stasyukevich S.M. (Blagoveshchensk). Russian Far Eastern agricultural exports in the 1920s…………….65

SVETLANA MIKHAILOVNA STASYUKEVICH — Ph.D. in History, Professor, Head of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines of the Far Eastern State Agrarian University. E-mail: svetasms@inbox.ru

It is shown that the reorientation of peasant production for export began during the Civil War in the territories controlled by both white and red regimes. The Soviet government during the period of the new economic policy tried to consolidate these trends. The expansion of agricultural exports has become part of the state agrarian policy in the region; however, the achievement of the region’s self-sufficiency in grain remained a priority. The article discusses the activities of Soviet institutions to determine and increase the export potential of the Far Eastern village, the stimulating effect of the export of agricultural products abroad on its production in the peasant economy. It is concluded that it was not possible to achieve sustainable export development of the agrarian sector of the regional economy and significantly increase the scale of export of agricultural products in the 1920s.

Keywords: Far East, Civil War, new economic policy, Soviet authority, peasantry, foreign trade, grain exports, grain procurements.


Tkachyova G.A. (Vladivostok). The contribution of the fishing industry of the Far East of the USSR in the country’s food base (1941–1945)………………………………………………………………………72

GALINA ANATOLYEVNA TKACHYOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Far Eastern Federal University, Leading Researcher of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the People of the Far East, Far East Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 690001, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Pushkinskaya St., 89. E-mail: tkacheva.ga@bk.ru

In the article, on the basis of a set of archival documents and materials, first introduced into scientific circulation, the contribution of the fishing industry of the Far East of the USSR to the food base of the country is considered. The changes in the field technical base and the peculiarities of the activity of the fishery complexes are revealed, the time series characterizing the use of the biological resources of the Pacific basin are presented. It was noted that the production of fish by suppliers of various departments increased, in order to increase labor productivity, new tools and fishing methods were introduced, designed for the extraction of new breeds that did not have a commercial value. The shortage of labor was compensated by intensifying labor, manufacturing various devices and tools from local raw materials and materials, simplifying and combining technological operations, and mechanizing manual labor. The fish industry of the Far East compensated for the loss of other types of food products by expanding areas and objects of fishing. State deliveries allowed to concentrate and distribute their maximum quantity for the needs of the front and rear, which in the conditions of the Great Patriotic War was of great importance for preserving the food security of the USSR.

Keywords: the Far East of the USSR, the Great Patriotic War, fishing industry, food security, supply.





Anisimov A.L. (Khabarovsk), Tikhi K.T. (Ussuriysk). American Commissioner in Qing Empire Robert Milligan McLane (1853–1854): from quasi-hostile to aggressive policy………………………………..81

ALEXANDER LEONIDOVICH ANISIMOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of socio-humanitarian and economic disciplines of the Far Eastern Law Institute. 680063, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Vladivostokskiy per., 1–34. E-mail: anisimov0802@gmail.com

KONSTANTIN TEODOROVICH TIKHI — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Historical Education, Pedagogical School of the Far Eastern Federal University. 690010, Russian Federation, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Nekrasova ul., 35. E-mail: kontih@mai.ru

This article analyzes the activities of American diplomatic representative in the Qing Empire R.M. McLane to implement the new tasks of Chinese policy of the United States set by Washington at the middle of the 1850s. The tasks assigned to R. McLane by the Department of State had not been addressed because of the lack of opportunities to exert forceful pressure on Beijing and the unwillingness of England to start a new war with China, which could use the United States as it was during the first opium war. An American diplomat, and the Government of the United States came to the conclusion that only force can compel Beijing to go on a new assignment.

Keywords: Far eastern United States policy, China, Qing Empire, opium wars, Taiping rebellion.


Garusova L.N. (Vladivostok). Cultural and humanitarian ties between the Russian Far East and the United States: historical experience (Last quarter of the 19th century)……………………………………..89

LARISA NIKOLAEVNA GARUSOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief researcher of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the peoples of the Far East, Far East Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Russia, Pushkinskaya St., 89. E-mail: lgarusova@mail.ru

By the end of the 19th century, constructive economic, political and cultural ties had developed between the Russian Far East and the West Coast of the United States. The positive experience of such cooperation could be useful at the present time. Despite objective difficulties, Russians and Americans managed to implement several joint scientific and humanitarian projects that made a significant contribution to the development of world anthropological science, as well as contributed to the strengthening of the Russian-American relations in general. The participation of the Russian ethnographers in Jesup’s expedition helped the decision of the key scientific problems of the occupation of the American continent. The policy of the Russian authorities to the American presence in the Russian Far East is considered on the basis of the analysis of archival materials, as well as little-known works of American scientists. As a result, the author’s position was formulated that joint Russian-American ethnographic expeditions, exchange of museum and exhibition artifacts, support by the Russian authorities of American scientific projects in North-East Asia, etc., turned the Russian Far East into one of the world centers of applied ethnographic research in the late 19th century. Regional humanitarian Russian-American cooperation contributed to the education and mutual understanding of the peoples of Russia and the United States in general.

Keywords: Russian Far East, USA, cultural cooperation, ethnographic expeditions, Jesup, settlement of the American continent, anthropology.


Tolstokulakov I.A., Elantseva O.P. (Vladivostok). The role of foreign centers of emigration in the developing of the patriotic ideology of Korea at the beginning of the 20th century………………………………….94

IGOR ANATOLIEVICH TOLSTOKULAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Korean Studies, Far Eastern Federal University. 690105, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Davydova St., 42–75. E-mail: tolstokulakov.ia@dvfu.ru

OLGA PAVLOVNA ELANTSEVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Archive Management, Far Eastern Federal University. 690922, Vladivostok, Russky Island, Ajax Bay, FEFU Campus, bld. F, A 402. E-mail: elantseva.op@dvfu.ru

From the second half of the 19th century Korea became a subject of colonial aspiration of western states and Japan. The destiny of the country turned out completely determined toward the beginning of the 20th century: the plan of Korean annexation and transformation into a bridgehead for the further jerk to Asia Continent had been prepared in Tokyo and successfully realized up to 1910. The most radical Korean patriots have been forced to leave homeland and to found centers for national liberation in China, Russia and the USA. The vigorous activity of anti-Japanese patriotic organization abroad has been accompanied with formation of Korean bourgeois nationalism; its ideology was very distinguished from the feudal nationalism, which determined the reaction of Korean society to the start of colonial pressure in the frontier of the 19th and 20th centuries. This article has been aimed for objective analysis of forming conditions, contents and significance of the new type of Korean patriotic ideology in three foreign centers of Korean emigration. The author devoted much attention to Russian Far East formerly to Primorye region and at the same time he also took into consideration the role of local press in strengthening of Korean emigrant’s patriotic attitude. This article is marked by reference to Marxism influence upon forming of national liberation ideology of Koreans settled down in Russia.

Keywords: Korea, national liberation movement, ideology, socio-political ideas, mass media, emigration, colonial policy, Russian Far East.





Serdyuk M.B. (Vladivostok). The Church, separated by a border………………………………………….103

MARIIA BORISOVNA SERDYUK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Far Eastern Federal University. 690091, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Sukhanova St., 8. E-mail: userdyuk@mail.ru

The article discusses the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in the far East in the 1940s. Until 1922, the Orthodox parishes on the territory of the exclusion zone of the Chinese Eastern railway was part of the Vladivostok diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. After the end of the Civil war, the unified Church structure was divided by the state border and the social system. In the territory of China, in the emigrant environment, the traditional Orthodox life continued. On the territory of the Soviet Primorye and Amur parishes were closed. The revival of religious life in the USSR took place during the great Patriotic war. The article compares the processes that took place in Church life in the Soviet Far East and in China. Shows the relationship of the events of Church life in Manchuria, Primorye and the Amur region after the Second world war.

Keywords: the Russian Orthodox Church, the far East of Russia, Manchuria, emigration, state-confessional relations.


Rodionova K.I. (Vladivostok). Catholic schools in Manchuria……………………………………………..108

KSENIYA IGOREVNA RODIONOVA — Postgraduate student of the 2nd course, Far Eastern Federal University. 690922, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, island Russky, Ajax 10, FEFU campus, building F, room 614. E-mail: rodionovadvfu@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the history of the formation of Catholic schools in Manchuria in the period of emigration. The author gives the fullest attention to the Russian Catholic diocese of the Byzantine-Slavic rite in Manchuria and its educational activities in the territory of Harbin. The article uses a large number of foreign scientific publications on the topic in Polish. Appearing as charitable organizations or shelters, Catholic schools gained widespread fame throughout Northeast China in the 1920s and 1940s. One of the most prestigious educational institutions in Harbin was the Russian Lyceum of St. Nicholas for boys. Lyceum led its own column in the magazine «Catholic Herald», led charitable activities. Convent (college) at the monastery of the Ursuline sisters and the convention of the Ursuline sisters were engaged in the education of girls in Harbin.

Keywords: Russian Harbin, Catholics of Harbin, Manchuria, emigration, Catholicism, uniates, Catholics, Lyceum of St. Nicholas.





Vinogradov P.V. (Vladivostok). The activities of the Harbin steam locomotive workshops to ensure the transport of military technical cargoes during the First World War…………………………………….112

PAVEL VALENTINOVICH VINOGRADOV Ph.D. in History, Doctoral student at the School of Arts and Humanities of the Far Eastern Federal University. 690922 Vladivostok. Russian Island, Ajax village, 27. 692390 settlement Sibirtsevo, Slobodskoy per. 18. E-mail: supwin26@mail.ru

Based on previously unpublished archival sources of central and regional archives, the article deals with the functioning and activities of the Harbin steam-engine repair workshops. The First World War demonstrated the extremely important role of railways, both in supporting military operations and in the stable operation of the economy transferred to the war footing. However, to ensure the proper production of rolling stock, the domestic industry was not able to. Therefore, during the war, the tsarist government began to resort to the purchase of railway property abroad, mainly in the United States. For the purpose of operational commissioning of foreign rolling stock in Harbin, the locomotive workshops of the China Eastern Railway were reconstructed. Due to the rapid deployment of production, rational organization of labor, workshops contributed to a qualitative increase in the locomotive fleet of the country. The locomotive workshops played an equally important role in the timely transportation of foreign goods and strategic raw materials. Vladivostok became one of the key ports in accepting cargoes that went within the framework of military-technical cooperation, and the American Decapot steam locomotives assembled in the workshops were the main element that increased the speed and timeliness of cargo transportation to European Russia.

Keywords: The First World War, military-technical cooperation, foreign supplies, rolling stock, “Decapot”, engine workshops, production cycle, Vladivostok, Harbin.


Likharev D.V., Simonenko E.S. (Ussuriysk). Condition of the Canadian Navy during the First World War……………………………………………………………..120

DMITRII VITALIEVICH LIKHAREV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, School of Education, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU). 692500, Russian Federation, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Nekrasova ul. 35. E-mail: likharev_dv@mail.ru

EKATERINA SERGEEVNA SIMONENKO — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, School of Education, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU). 692500, Russian Federation, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk, Nekrasova St., 35. E-mail: eka-1982.82@mail.ru

The paper represents an objective picture about the Canadian navy position at the beginning of the 20th century. The events’ chronology confines to 1914–1920. The low point limits the entry of the North American Dominion into the war. The upper point limits to 1920, when the Canadian navy was sold out. The paper defines the Canadian navy role and place in defence provision of the Dominion’s territorial waters during the war years. It investigates the composition and organization of the Canadian navy. It reconstructs operations on the Eastern and Western (Atlantic and Pacific) coasts of Canada, in which the battleships «Niobe» and «Rainbow» participated. It pays the particular attention to the circumstances in which the Canadian government built of two submarines and their activities in 1914–1918. It analyzes the Canadian Patrol Service’s activity during the war.

Keywords: Canada, history of Canada, World War I, Navy, Canadian fleet, «Nioba», «Rainbow», submarines, patrol service.





Milezhik A.V. (Vladivostok). Formation of school on the history of law enforcement in the Russian Far East………………………………………………….128

ALEXEY VIKTOROVICH MILEZHIK – Ph.D. in History, Head of the Department of Humanities of Vladivostok branch of the Far East Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 690087, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Kotelnikov St., 21. E-mail: avmilezhik@yandex.ru

The article deals with the trends in the formation of the scientific school on the history of law enforcement in the Far East of Russia. The specificity of the scientific school is analyzed. Summarize the main directions of research, provides an overview of the work of the Far Eastern researchers. Attention is drawn to the fact that the creation of scientific schools is the need for science, the need for scientists. The scientific community needs constant contacts, exchange of information, mutual evaluation of works, and, consequently, the formation of scientific schools, directions, creative teams. The scientific school on the history of law enforcement in the Far East of Russia is an organization of close, constant, informal communication of scientists, exchange of ideas and discussion of the results. The author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to further study the history of law enforcement agencies on the basis of active expansion of the source base, formulation of new problems and questions, scientific analysis and critical approach to the evaluation of existing ones.

Keywords: scientific school, prospects of study, research, historiography, law enforcement agencies, history, Russia, Far East.


Usov A.V. (Vladivostok). The rising from the depths of decades: Special Expedition for Underwater Works (EPRON) of the USSR turns 95 years!………………………………………………………………………..136

ALEKSEY VYACHESLAVOVICH USOV – Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecturer, State Legal and Civil Legal Subjects Department, Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 690002, Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Okeansky Prospekt, 98–1. E-mail: 101-mvd@mail.ru

In December 2018, it was 95 years since the formation of the legendary EPRON. The memorable date – December 17, 1923 is still considered as the birthday of Russian maritime rescuers, divided into military and civilian branches in 1956. The article substantiates the need for a comprehensive study of the history of the Special Expedition for Underwater Works of the USSR (1923–1942). The concept of “Epronal studies” is proposed to the scientific community. The author comes to a conclusion that results of a research EPRON’s heritage can be introduced at correction of state policy in the field of rescue at the sea and also in the course of education and training of specialists on diving, rescue and ship-raising business irrespective of their departmental accessory.

Keywords: EPRON, popularization, rescuer, special service, diver, ship salvaging, maritime safety, sea rescue service, Epronal studies.


Gridyaeva M.V. (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Formation of academic science in the Sakhalin region in the early postwar years (1945–1947)…………………………………………………………………..143

MARINA VLADIMIROVNA GRIDYAEVA – Ph.D. in History, Leading Advisor, Ministry of Culture and Archives of the Sakhalin region. 693007, Russian Federation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Dzerzhinsky St., 72. E-mail: grimar123@yandex.ru

At the end of the Second World War, Southern Sakhalin with the adjacent island territories and the Kuril Islands were transferred to the jurisdiction of the USSR. The annexed lands were of interest not only as a source of raw materials and an energy source of the country’s economy. Attached land is of interest not only as a source of raw materials and the energy source of the country’s economy but they had state and political significance as the “forpost of the USSR in the Pacific”. The early development and settlement of the islands was the most important task, the development of the national economy, it was not possible without modern scientific knowledge. In this regard, the scientific study of the islands fell into the zone of priority attention from the state.

This article discusses the main factors of the formation of academic science and the development of personnel potential on Sakhalin in the first post-war years. Both economic and social-and-political conditions and factors in the development of research in the island region are characterized. Based on the materials of the central and regional archives, available works the author concludes that the activities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the development of the resource potential and the development of the productive forces of the Sakhalin Region in the postwar years became the foundation on the basis of which unfolded in the following years, further development of this territory.

Keywords: the USSR Academy of Sciences, scientists, investigation, research institutions, archival data, Sakhalin island, Kuril Islands, Кarafuto.





Kanevskaya G.I., Dudarenok S.M. (Vladivostok). The review of the leading organization – Far Eastern Federal University – on the doctoral dissertation of E.N. Nazemcevoj “Political and legal status of Russian emigrants in China in the Chinese-Soviet relations 1920–1949” presented for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences, specialty 07.00.03 – General History…………………………………………….149

GALINA IVANOVNA KANEVSKAYA – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher of the Scientific Laboratory of International Institutions and Multilateral Cooperation of the Asia-Pacific Region. Eastern Institute – School of Regional and International Studies of Far Eastern Federal University. 690922. Vladivostok, Russky Island, Ajax Bay, FEFU Campus, bld. D. E-mail: gkanevskaya@mail.primorye.ru

SVETLANA MIKHAILOVNA DUDARENOK – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History and Archeology of the School of Arts and Humanities. Far Eastern Federal University. 690922, Vladivostok, Russky Island, Ajax Bay, FEFU Campus, bld. F. E-mail: dudarenoksv@gmail.com

 The publication is a review on the doctoral dissertation on the peculiarities of the political and legal status of Russian émigrés in China in the context of the Chinese-Soviet relations of 1920-1949. The author of the dissertation collected an extensive and in many ways unique archival material, on the basis of which a comprehensive study of the political and legal status of Russian émigrés in China in the dynamics of Chinese-Soviet relations is presented. A reasoned idea was put forward on the mutual influence of the problem of settling the legal status of Russian refugees and international relations in the Far East and Central Asia. Dissertation research of E.N. Nazemtseva meets the requirements of the Higher Attestation Commission, and the author deserves the award of the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences in the specialty 07.00.03 – General History (New and Modern Time).Keywords: Russian emigration in China, Sino-Soviet relations in 1920–1949, political and legal status of emigrants.




To the 70th anniversary of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Honorary Professor Sergey Grigorievich Kashchenko…………………………………………….155

For more than twenty-five years, Sergey Kashchenko is the head of the Department of source studies of the history Of Russia in the Institute of history of St. Petersburg state University.  A graduate of mathematical-mechanical (1971) and historical (1975) faculties of Leningrad state University Sergey G. Kashchenko became a unique specialist, who united mathematician and historian in one person. The first studies on the economic history of Russia were published by S.G. Kashchenko in the early seventies. He is the author of more than 200 scientific works, including more than 30 monographs, collections of documents, textbooks. A number of books, articles and brochures of S.G. Kashchenko have been translated into English, French, Finnish, German and published in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, the USA, CIS countries.