Klio # 10 (142) 2018





Volobuev O.V. (Moscow). Karl Marx and the goal-setting history………………………………………………………..……..13

OLEG VLADIMIROVICH VOLOBUEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Moscow Region State University. 105005, Russian Federation, Moscow, Radio St., 10A. E-mail: volobuevov@yandex.ru

In this jubilee, to the 200th anniversary of Marx’s birth, an essay devoted to the fate of his creative heritage, the most important problem of history and Marxism is considered: the possibility of long-term forecasts of the ways of social development on the basis of understanding the previous evolution of human society. The author defines the concept of “goal-setting history” as a deterministic process of social development with a predetermined result (outcome). In the essay is given in the historiographical aspect a fragmentary survey of the views of the apologists and critics of Marxism. The criterion for evaluating theoretical and prognostic hypotheses is verification by the historical practice of mankind. The author in his arguments relies not only on such critics of Marxism as K. Popper, but also on the experience of the historical path that our country and the rest of the world have done over the past century.

Keywords: Karl Marx, Marxism, criticism of Marxism, the function of scientific forecasting, historicism.





Stepanova L.G. (Krasnodar). Field notes of land surveyors and “fairy tales” of peasants of the St. Petersburg province as sources of “lost” information of Economic Notes……………………………………………………………………………………..18

LILIYA GENNADIEVNA STEPANOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History, Cultural Studies and Museology, Krasnodar State Institute of Culture. 350072, Russian Federation, Krasnodar, 40-letiya Pobedy St., 33. E-mail: liliya_stepanova@list.ru

The article compares the information of the “fairy tales” of peasants and the Economic Notes to the General land surveying of the St. Petersburg province. The relevance of the study is due to the growing interest in Economic Notes and their varying degrees of preservation. The peasant “fairy tales”, found in the field notes of the surveyors, are a little-studied and rarely used source containing the initial information for compiling Economic Notes. An analysis of sources is made on a comparable basis of peasant “fairy tales”, Cameral and Brief Economic Notes. It turns out that in general the peasant “tales” are confirmed by the information contained in the Economic Notes. However, unlike the “fairy tales” of peasants in the Economic Notes, there can be observed not only a loss but the addition of certain information. In the absence of Full and Cameral Economic Notes on individual territories, “fairy tales” of peasants allow filling the gap in the description of holiday homes in the Brief Economic Notes.

Keywords: Economic Notes, General land surveying, “fairy tales” of peasants, field notes of surveyors, Cameral Economic Notes, St. Petersburg province.


Medvedev S.V. (Moscow). Correspondence of heads of local investigation institutions with the Police department in 1907……………………………………………………………………………..27

SERGEY VLADIMIROVICH MEDVEDEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, History and Social Technologies, Humanitarian Institute, Russian University of Transport. 127055, Russian Federation, Moscow, Novosuschevskaya St., 22. E-mail: speransky1809@yandex.ru

This article is focused on the content of communications between the Police department management and subordinate heads of Security departments and Gendarmerie departments. A wide range of issues was discussed: nuances of detective activity, features of the formation of secret agents, ways of countering illegal movements. Local heads of the investigation department have frequently been in conflict with each other. They were searching for compromising information on one another. Besides that, competition between local Security departments and Gubernial Gendarmerie Directorates took place. Heads of those two parties had different views on counteracting revolutionary groups during the initial months after the First Russian Revolution, which exacerbate the conflict. The author concludes that there was a lack of control from the Police department, both from local Security departments and from Gubernial Gendarmerie Directorates.

Keywords: Security departments, Gendarmerie departments, Police department, secret agents, punitive trains.


Zdanovich A.A. (Moscow). “The figure of silence”: military counterintelligence in the memoirs of marshals and generals………………………………………………………………………….31

ALEXANDER ALEXANDROVICH ZDANOVICH — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State Pedagogical University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 1/1. E-mail: zdanovich52@gmail.com

This year, the 75th anniversary of the creation of counter-intelligence agencies “SMERSH” was celebrated. On the shelves of bookstores appeared a lot of literature about the structure of the domestic intelligence services. However, not all publications really and objectively reflect the historical events of the Great Patriotic War, related to the activities of “SMERSH”. And the work of the “SMERSH” consisted not only of the fight against the intelligence of Germany and its satellites, but also to assist the command in maintaining a high level of combat readiness of troops. It would seem that the stories about it had to find a place in the memoirs of the marshals and generals (commanders and political workers). However, studies of more than two dozen memoirs, published during the Soviet period of our history, and reprinted (often revised and corrected) in recent years, shows the almost complete absence of even the mention the work of the military counterintelligence. This situation has developed for a number of reasons, namely: none of the leaders of the front-line apparatus “SMERSH” left his memories; military leaders did not want to talk about the activities of “SMERSH”, as security officers revealed shortcomings in the preparation of troops for combat operations, which the memoirs tried not to mention; censors from the Main political Directorate of the Soviet army and Navy did not miss the relevant subjects, guided by the idea of pseudo-patriotism in the coverage of the events of the Great Patriotic War.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Red Army, military counterintelligence, “SMERSH”, repressions, military memoirs, military leaders and political workers, censorship.





Zhuravlev O.V. (Vladivostok). Russian naval scientific thought at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries: on the origins of the conceptual foundations of the national Maritime policy of Russia…………………………………………………………………..43

OLEG VLADIMIROVICH ZHURAVLEV — Postgraduate student, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service. 690091, PrimorskiI kraI, Vladivostok, Okeanskij pr., 16–13. E-mail: zhuravlev_oleg_tovvmu@mail.ru

The problem of formation and implementation of the national Maritime policy in the context of national security and the achievement of Russia’s national interests in the world ocean in the context of globalization is of paramount importance. This has led to an increasing scientific interest in the study of a wide range of problems in the formation and implementation of national Maritime policy on the part of a wide range of social disciplines. The origins of the formation of the conceptual foundations of the national Maritime policy of Russia, which meets the new requirements of the time, is fundamentally different from the Maritime policy of the major Maritime powers. It had its own national feature, characterized as a purely defensive. It was based on the geopolitical ideas of the Russian school, the achievements of socio-political and naval scientific thought, as well as the experience of naval construction and combat use of the fleet of previous years. This article is devoted to the study of the origins of the national Maritime policy at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.

Keywords: national Maritime policy of Russia; geopolitical ideas of the Russian school; naval scientific thought; General theory of military science.


Rostovtsev E.A. (Saint Petersburg). Russian Middle Ages and Russian Publicism of the turn of 20th–21st centuries…………………………………………………………50

EVGENIY ANATOLIEVICH ROSTOVTSEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences (Ph.D.), Associate Professor, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E‑mail: e.rostovtsev@spbu.ru

In the focus of the article are the popular publicistic narratives, which was in demand in Russian society in the end of the 20th — beginning of the 21st centuries. Based on the analysis of the data of publishing statistics, sociological surveys, the network content, the most popular journalistic texts of different directions and genres are analyzed. The evolution of imaginations about the Middle Ages, historical figures and events of pre-Petrine Rus in the narratives of pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet times was research in comparison with other sources of historical memory formation. It is shown that the construction of Middle Ages in publicist texts was undergone significant changes in spite of the fact that the Middle Ages were mainly the place of consensus of historical memory. They are connected both with the change in the role of publicism in the formation of the information agenda and with the change in attitude towards the medieval past, which become the ideal of the lost “golden age” from the instrument used to create historical schemes.

Keywords: historical memory, pre-Petrine Russia, Middle Ages, medievalism, publicism.





Sogomonyan Z.A. (Chelyabinsk). “Reaganomics” and Modernization of Old Industrial Areas in the Midwest of the USA in the 1980s………………………………………………………………………….58

ZAVEN ARSHAVIROVICH SOGOMONYAN — Postgraduate student, Department of World History, South Urals State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University. 454080, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk, pr. Lenina, 69. E-mail: zavens@inbox.ru

In the article, specific features of economic development of old industrial territories in the Midwest of the USA (states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin) are considered in the conditions of the fundamental changes that took place in the 1980s. The research is based on statistical data, periodicals of those years, and some other materials. Carrying out the analysis within the framework of the full macroeconomic cycle of 1980–1989, the author shows that this period turned out to be controversial for the industrial states of the Midwest. During the crisis of 1980–1982, the situation in the region continued to deteriorate even in comparison with the previous difficult decade. Then the Midwest managed to use the general economic recovery of 1983–1989, accompanied by additional favorable circumstances, for successful economic modernization. However, after extended chronological measurements covering the period from 1963 to the present, it can be argued that successes of the 1980s were only a temporary correction in the general economic weakening of a huge region with a great industrial past.Keywords: USA, Midwest, old industrial areas, 1980s, “Reaganomics”, crisis, modernization.





Velikorussov P.V. (Irkutsk). Origin of primary, secondary and higher education in Russia (18th–19th century). Prototype of the idea of convergence…………………………………………………………………………64

PETR VIKTOROVICH VELIKORUSSOV — Head of the center of pre-university career guidance, Irkutsk National Research Technical University. 664074, Irkutsk region. Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 83. E-mail: p.velikorussov@gmail.com

The article deals with the process of secular education formation in Russia from the beginning of the 18th century to the second half of the 19 century. Before Peter I, Russian education system was based on individual trainings. Peter opened a number of secular schools, based on a single learning platform, with strong motivation and with a broad, by that time, education. The ideas of Peter continued to be implemented by Catherine II. At the same time, technical education was closely related to the level of development of the country’s industry and the means of communication. In the future, the traditions of Russian education – a common platform, the breadth of education and motivation widely spread in a higher technical school, primarily in the Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Means of Communications (now Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University), founded in 1809 on the initiative of the Director of the Department of Water Communications, N.P. Rumyantsev. Thanks to the implicit idea of the convergence of education, the engineers of the railways were famous throughout the country for their knowledge, breadth of interests, non-standard thinking, the ability to manage huge masses of people, the foresight of the decisions made, and their nobility.

Keywords: engineering schools, Peter I, unification of knowledge, motivation, breadth of education, Institute of Railways.





Zhiborkina A. V. (Moscow). Peasant relationships in the North Russian village in 17th — the 1st quarter of 18th century…………………………………………………….71

ANASTASIA VLADIMIROVNA ZHIBORKINA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History to the beginning of the 19th century, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27/4. E-mail; zhib_anastasiya@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied problem of peasant relationships in the 17th – first quarter of 18th century. The geographical framework is Sinegotskaya tret’ of Yarokurskiy stan in Ustug’s county. The historical sources are census books. The approach used here is to study the history of each peasant family. It gave opportunities to study the relationship both within and between peasant families. The study showed the presence of strong relationships within the family, the responsibility of elders for the younger, the desire to maintain these relationships when they moved to other settlements. It was possible to identify different relationships between families (neighborly and economic relations and marriages).

Keywords: Russian history, 17th century, 18th century, demographic history, family, peasant relationships, the Russian North, Ustug’s county.


Yurganova I.I. (Yakutsk, Republic Sakha (Yakutia). Features of spiritual management of Yakutia (17th — early 20th centuries)……………………………………………………………………………………84

INNA IGOREVNA YURGANOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 677000, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, ul. Lermontova, 23–4–24. E-mail: inna.yurganova@mail.ru

The article deals with the evolution of the administrative structures of the Russian Orthodox Church in Yakutia in the context of integration processes of the 17th—19th centuries taking into account the marginal specifics of the territory, which led, among other things, to the later registration of the organs and institutions of Church administration in the region. The proposed author’s periodization of the history of Orthodoxy in the Yakut region is based on its Church-administrative affiliation with the allocation of six chronological periods. It is determined that by the early twentieth century the Russian Orthodox Church in Yakutia was represented by an extensive organization with all the basic structures of the diocesan office, the conclusion about the significance of research of Church history, which provides opportunities to enhance understanding of the integration of the outlying regions of the Empire to the implementation of the national, Empire-wide problems. It is proposed to include the sign of the majority of the population of the outskirts to the official religion as a criterion for the integration of the region into the state.

Keywords: the Yakut district, the Yakutsk region, the spiritual administration in Yakutia, the Russian Orthodox Church in Yakutia, Yakut and Vilyui diocese, Innokenty (Veniaminov), the spiritual Consistory, the Yakutsk Spassky monastery, the integration of marginal territories.


Stepanova L.B. (Yakutsk, Republic Sakha (Yakutiya). The north of Yakutia in the expedition photo review 1920–1930…………………………………………………………………….90

LENA BORISOVNA STEPANOVA — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Department of Archaeology and Ethnography, Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of RAS. 677007, Russian Federation, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Yakutsk, Petrovskogo St., 1. E-mail: solo007_79@rambler.ru

The cultural representation of the method included observation of the everyday life activity of the indigenous peoples of the North of Yakutia by means of photography has found a vivid expression in the expedition photo-documentary materials of the scientific expeditions the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In this article examines the results of visual and anthropological research of the peoples the Arctic North of Yakutia, in Verkhoyansk, Kolyma and Bulun districts, undertaken by the explorers of the Lensky Ichthyological and Verkhoyansk ethnographic orders of the Academy of Sciences USSR, as well as the medical orders of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR. Complex study and analysis of expeditionary photography as a kind of visual text, taking into account the geography of the place of creation, where the images were taken, the personality of the photographer, his membership in a particular scientific school, allows interpreting this material in the historical-anthropological and discursive-mental context (texts, memories, personal correspondence) of the personalities involved in this process.

Keywords: visual studies, indigenous peoples, visual text, visual sources.


Baranov A.V. (Krasnodar). Comparative analysis of changes in the Crimean Tatar area in Crimea (1926–2014)………………………………………………………98

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH BARANOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Department of Political Science and Political Management of the Kuban State University. 350040, Krasnodar, Stavropolskaya St., 149, office 237. E-mail: baranovandrew@mail.ru

The article identifies the similarities and differences in the distribution area of the Crimean Tatars on the Crimean peninsula in the early Soviet and modern periods (based on population censuses). The author proceeds from the hypothesis that the area of settlement of the Crimean Tatars is not an isolated segment, but is included as one of the components in the single poliethnic and policonfessional space of the Crimea. The consequences of urbanization and changes in the administrative and territorial division of the Crimea for the geography of the resettlement of the Crimean Tatars are revealed. The opinion about the territorial discrimination of the Crimean Tatars in the 1920s–1930s was refuted. Economic, social and political reasons for the movement of the Crimean Tatars to the steppe and foothill parts of the Crimea during the repatriation of 1990–2014 are revealed. The interrelation between the area of Crimean Tatars’ residence and the dislocation of manifestations of ethnopolitical, linguistic and confessional conflicts in the post-Soviet Crimea has been established.

Keywords: geography of settlement, Crimean Tatars, changes, political consequences, 1926–2014.


Antoshkin A.V. (Sterlitamak, Republic of Bashkortostan). Food supply for the people of Bashkiria during the Great Patriotic War……………………………………………………………………106

ANATOLY VASILIEVICH ANTOSHKIN — Ph.D. in History, Teacher of History and Social Science, Gymnasium № 2 of the city district of Sterlitamak. 453100, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, ul. Artema, 25–63. E-mail: aav151284@rambler.ru

The article treats the work of state-owned and cooperative organizations of Bashkiria for establishing the food supply for people in the republic during the Great Patriotic War based on the documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The archive materials used in the research are introduced for scientific scrutiny for the first time, and they have allowed to discover the main problems of rationing, to find and analyze its flaws as well as to determine the efficiency of the rationing system in the hard economic conditions of the wartime. Particular attention is paid to the supply of workers of military factories, special children’s and medical institutions with restricted access. The conclusion is made that with dramatic decrease of goods turnover of state-owned and cooperative organizations as well as significant prices growth the rationing system enabled to concentrate the limited foods resources on the needs of groups chosen for supply, including evacuated people. The state-owned and cooperative organizations of the republic and departments of working supply used all available means to offset the deficit of centralized funds by involving decentralized sources of goods and by organizing their own subsidiary plots. These measures helped to save people from hunger, keep workers and office employees healthy which increased their efficiency and the overall contribution of Bashkiria to the victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Bashkiria, rationing, rationing cards system, consumer cooperation, People’s Commissariat for Trade, department of working supply.





Rybachenok I.S. (Moscow). The Position of Russia at the Second Peace Conference of 1907 at The Hague………………114

IRINA SERGEEVNA RYBACHENOK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Russian History of the RAS. 117036, Moscow, ul. Dm. Ul’yanova, 19. E-mail: rybachenok@gmail.com

The Second Peace Conference of 1907 at The Hague was held in the context of the aggravation of the struggle for the redistribution of the world. All of the great powers strenuously increased their military potential, giving priority to the creation of a powerful Navy. There was a dominating idea about the fleet as an instrument of a great power, without which an effective policy was impossible. The article is devoted to the analysis of Russia’s position on the Second Peace Conference of 1907 at The Hague. The differences in the approaches of the Russian Foreign Ministry and the Ministry of Maritime to the resolution of controversial issues on the agenda are revealed. The author shows the differences between the leading powers during the international forum on arms reduction, the mandatory international arbitration, the establishment of the international prize court, the inviolability of private property at sea, the transformation of commercial ships into military ones, the bombing of ports and mines, the criteria of smuggling and others.

Keywords: Russian foreign policy in the early 20th century, the Second Peace Conference of 1907at The Hague.


Antonov E.P., Antonova V.N. (Yakutsk, Republic Sakha (Yakutiya). On the question of the political activity of the Yakut emigrants………………………………………………………………………………….124 

EGOR PETROVICH ANTONOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher, Department of History and Ethnosociology of Arctic Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of RAS. 677027, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Yakutsk, ul. Petrovskogo, 1408. E-mail: Antegor@yandex.ru

VENERA NIKOLAEVNA ANTONOVA — Ph.D. in Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social Pedagogy, Pedagogical Institute, North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk. 677000, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Yakutsk, ul. Belinskogo, 58.

The article reveals the activities of the most radical part of the Yakut emigration in continuing the political struggle against Soviet power under the auspices of Japan. The overwhelming majority of refugees did not do it, as they fought for living and accommodation in an alien environment. “King of deer”, the head of the village of Karafuto, where the Yakuts, Evenks, Gilyaki, Wilt, etc. lived., D.P. Vinokurov organized several congresses for the purpose of consolidation, anti-Soviet propaganda and involvement of neophytes in the anti-Soviet struggle, and compiled a political program. It dealt with the struggle of the peoples of Yakutia under the influence of the pan-Asian ideology against Soviet power. However, the organization of the expedition of General A.N. Pepelyayev, the sending of saboteurs as A.G. Nikiforov, and the organization of anti-Soviet conspiracies on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk remained unsuccessful.Keywords: Yakut emigration, Civil War, White movement, BREM, pan-Asianism, aborigines, collectivization.





Chernykh T.G. (Saint Petersburg). New medievalism and children’s literature in Serbia………………………………………129

TATIANA GERMANOVNA CHERNYKH — Junior Researcher, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5. E-mail: t.chernykh@spbu.ru

The article introduces Serbian experience of using medievalism in children’s literature over the past ten years. The research materials are presented by four series of historical novels, as well as by several separate books in the genres of historical novel, adventure story and epic poetry. The most common heroes of the stories are prince Marko and the main representatives of the Nemanjich dynasty (Stefan Nemanja, Saint Sava, Stefan Dushan). The author comes to a conclusion that medieval plots and medieval elements are widely spread in modern Serbian children’s literature. Serbian writers show readers the connection between remote past and present, and indicate that modern Serbian state is based upon medieval foundation. Writers seek to maintain historical authenticity using serious preparatory research work. Such books have very qualitative, colorful design in order to draw attention of modern children. Children’s literature is considered to be a valuable object of further analysis in the field of medievalism.

Keywords: the Middle Ages, medievalism, Serbia, Nemanjich dynasty, children’s literature, prince Marko, folklore, historical novel.


Shipilov A.V. (Voronezh). Russian food culture in the transition period…………………………………………………………..135

ANDREI VASILIEVICH SHIPILOV — Doctor of Culturology, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Economics, Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, Voronezh State Pedagogical University. 394043, Russian Federation, Voronezh, ul. Lenina., 86. E-mail: andshipilo@yandex.ru

In modern domestic food culture is undergoing significant changes due to the proliferation of new tools and ways of cooking, adoption foodstuffs, courses and culinary techniques of foreign origin. The closest historical analogue of these processes is the evolution of Russian ethnic food culture during the reign of Peter I and his immediate successors, to stay the course on innovation and acculturation in everyday life and culture in general. In that period, due to the spread of imported products, new kitchen implements and culinary technologies, significant changes occurred in the food culture of the higher and partly middle classes, however, peasant cuisine and cooking remained virtually unchanged, which consolidated the opposition of rural and urban culture that persisted until the 20th century.

Keywords: Russia, 18th century, history, culture, food, cooking, innovation, acculturation.





Gajiyev A.N. (Arkhangelsk), Abdullaev Y.S. (Saint Petersburg). Formation of the Armed Forces of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)………………………………………………………141

AYDIN NAZIMOVICH GAJIYEV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Vice-rector, Northern Institute of Enterepreneurship. 163001, Arkhangelsk, ul. Suvorova., 2. E-mail: west011@bk.ru

YASYN SAHIB OGLY ABDULLAEV — Student of the Department of the History of Peoples of the CIS Countries, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: ragiev@list.ru

The purpose of this study is to attempt to trace and analyze the main stages in the formation of the armed forces of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in 1918–1920. Passed in the most difficult internal and external political circumstances, the process of military development in Azerbaijan, which gained independence after the collapse of the Russian Empire, is of great interest. It was the military units that were formed by the ADR authorities that in the future became the backbone of the army of Soviet Azerbaijan. Their own successors today are officially considered the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The authors of the work come to the conclusion that the leadership of the ADR, despite the political and financial instability inside the country, as well as the aggression from the Soviet Russia, the Volunteer Army and Armenia, managed to cope with the task of designing the national army. At the same time, its combat effectiveness left much to be desired due to such shortcomings as the small number of the Azerbaijanis themselves in the officer corps, poor provision of weapons and ammunition, and a low level of training for Muslim soldiers. The extremely weak naval forces of the Republic, actually consisting of several ships of the former Caspian Military Flotilla, aggravated the situation. At the same time, in comparison with the external factor, the weakness of the ADR troops was not the main reason for the fall of this state.

Keywords: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920), the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan, Muslim National Corps, Caucasus Army of Islam, The Tatar Cavalry Regiment, Caspian Military Flotilla, Samad bey Makhmandiarov, Ali aga Shikhlinski, Suleyman bey Sulkevich, military development.


Sheudzhen E.a., Pocheshkhov N.A., Khotko S.H. (Maykop, Republic of Adygea). Military history of Circassians: an anthropological approach to understanding the warrior archetype……………………………………………………………….149

EMILIA AYUBOVNA SHEUDZHEN — Ph.D. in History, Professor, Department of National History, Historiography, Theory and Methodology of History, Adygean State University. 385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Pervomaiskaya ul., 208. E-mail: emil.scheujen2013@yandex.ru

NURBIY ASLANOVICH POCHESHKOV — Ph.D. in History, Professor, Department of National History, Historiography, Theory and Methodology of History, Adygean State University. 385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Pervomaiskaya ul., 208. E-mail: bases11@yandex.ru

SAMIR HAMIDOVICH KHOTKO — Ph.D. in History, Leading Researcher, Ethnology Department, Adygean Republican Institute of Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev. 385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Krasnooktyabrskaya ul., 13. E-mail: inalast@mail.ru

The article examines the history of Circassians in the foreshortening of military historical anthropology, which allows us to understand the evolution of their militancy and the prevailing basic ideas about the war. Military-historical anthropology as a relatively new field of humanitaristics integrates the problems, sources, methods of a number of sciences, which determines the significance of this scientific direction. The main idea of the article is the aspiration of the authors using the experience of ethnically oriented history, the achievements of modern sociology, ethnology, mythology, to comprehend the process of establishing the warrior’s archetype in the Circassian history. The process of heroization of mass consciousness accompanied the whole history of Circassians, undergoing a significant transformation in various critical periods related to internal conflicts and the strengthening of external military threats.

Keywords: Circassians, military history, historical anthropology, archetype, tradition, warrior, militancy, heroization of consciousness.


Кonorev V.V., Sherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). Transport problems of the armed struggle in the second half of the 19th century…………………………………………………………159

VICTOR VICTOROVICH КONOREV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History and Philosophy, A.F. Mozhaysky’s Military-Space Academy. 197198, Saint Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya ul., 13. E-mail: vka@mil.ru

ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH SHERBA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior Researcher of the Department of Military History of North-western Region of the Russian Federation, Research Institute of Military History, Military Academy of the General Staff. 191055, Saint Petersburg, Nevsky Pr., 10. E-mail: a.n.sherba@maiil.ru

The article deals with some problems of transport provision of the Russian army and other armies of European countries in the second half of the 19th century. In that historical period, there was a process of transforming the transport support of the troops, which gave them a new qualitative state. For thousands of years, transport support for armed struggle was carried out, mainly, with the help of cartage transport. In the second half of the 19th century, the railway transport system appeared in the transport support system of troops, and at the end of the 19th century — automobile transport. They, quite quickly, showed their high efficiency and were immediately highly appreciated by military specialists. The government of Russia, the largest states of Europe and the world began to take vigorous measures to develop rail and road transport. Military departments of the world’s major powers, including Russia, have begun work on adapting railway and automotive equipment to the transportation needs of troops. The emergence of rail and road transport in the transport system of the armed forces of Russia and other countries of the world has given them a new qualitative state and significantly affected the nature of the armed struggle as a whole.

Keywords: Military department, cartage, railway transport, road transport, scooters, means of armed struggle, ammunition, food, military equipment, military transport, mobility of troops, mobilization, transport support.





Ivanova A.N., Roshchevsky M.P. (Syktyvkar Republic of Komi). Willem Einthoven: the construction of the string galvanometer and the beginning of the use of electrocardiography in clinical practice…………………………………………163

ANNA NIKOLAEVNA IVANOVA — Research worker, Federal Research Centre Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the RAS. 167982, Republic of Komi, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya ul., 24. E‑mail: anna1486@mail.ru

MIKHAIL PAVLOVICH ROSHCHEVSKY — Doctor of Biological Sciences, Academician of the RAS, Chief research worker, Institute of Language, Literature and History Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the RAS. 167982, Republic of Komi, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya St, 26. E‑mail: roshmp@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the contribution of the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860 – 1927) to the development of electrocardiography. The study is based on the scientist’s works, materials of the periodical press, and textbooks of the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century. In the article a short biography of the scientist is presented, his main scientific interests are described. Great attention is paid to Einthoven’s important accomplishment: the construction of the string galvanometer at the beginning of the XX century that allowed to use electrocardiographic researches in clinical practice. The authors also turn their attention to the results of Gabriel Lippmann’s work. In the 1870-80’s the electrical activity of the animal and human heart was recorded for the first time by the use of Lippmann’s invention – the capillary electrometer. In the article the factors that generated a need for the construction of the new instrument – Einthoven’s string galvanometer are revealed.

Keywords: history of electrocardiography, Willem Einthoven, Einthoven’s string galvanometer, Lippmann’s capillary electrometer, electrical activity of the heart, registration of the electrocardiogram, clinical practice.





Stogov D.I. (Saint Petersburg). Rasputin’s relationship with Prince M.M. Andronikov………………………………………….170

DMITRII IGOREVICH STOGOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Culture History, State and Law, Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”. 197376, Saint Petersburg, ul. Professora Popova, 5. E-mail: bel-grigorij@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the nature of the relationship between the friend of the Imperial family Grigory Efimovich Rasputin and Prince-adventurer Michail Michailovich Andronikov. Contrary to popular ideas, the relationship between the organizer of the largest Right-monarchist salon of Petrograd and Rasputin were not cloudless. It is noted that over time they have undergone significant changes. It is said that Andronikov intended to use the “elder” for personal purposes and tried to establish good relations with him. However, after Rasputin refused to take part in the intrigues of the Prince, the relationship immediately deteriorated and went into an open confrontation. The reason for such changes should be seen, first of all, in Rasputin’s unwillingness to obey someone else’s will, in his unwillingness to be “used” by political intriguers for their own purposes.

Keywords: Russian Empire, the First World War, rights, right-monarchist saloons, Council of Ministers, State Duma.





Grebenshchikova G.A., Lupanova E.M. (Saint Petersburg). Is this an objective approach to the study of history or an ordinary “falsehood”?……………………………………………………….177

GALINA ALEKSANDROVNA GREBENSHCHIKOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Fleet and Navigation’s History, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 190008, St. Petersburg, Lotsmanskaya ul., 3. E-mail: inversiya@bk.ru

EVGENIA MIHAILOVNA LUPANOVA — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher, Department of the History of the Kunstkamera and 18th century Russian Science (M.V. Lomonosov Museum), Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera). 199034, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 3. E-mail: lupanova@kunstkamera.ru

The review is devoted to the book “If the War will be Tomorrow”, recently published by the “Gangut” publishing firm. The author of the book discusses the paradigms of fleet-employment and some questions of shipbuilding. The reviewers, who are the specialists on history of Russian Sail Fleet, jut steadily against that ways which the author of the book has opted to Russian naval history, drag the attention to the prepossession of estimations, numerous mistakes, specific character of fact selection, suggest thinking about the consequences of publications like that one.

Keywords: sailing fleet, historiography, the role of Navy in policy and on the theaters of naval operations, efficiency estimation, invective our history, shipbuilding.





Vasiliev Y.S. (Saint Petersburg). To the glory of the Russian Fatherland……………………………………………………….187

YURI SERGEEVICH VASILIEV — Academician of RAS, Scientific supervisor, Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Saint Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya ul., 29. Email: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

In pursuance of the Order of the President of the Russian Federation of May 5, 2005 No. 240-RP, a fundamental 12-volume edition “The great Patriotic war of 1941-1945” with 17 volumes of documentary applications was created and published under the leadership of the main editorial Commission headed by the Minister of defense of the Russian Federation, Hero of Russia, Army General S. K. Shoigu.


Gaidin S.T., Pavlova I.P. (Krasnoyarsk). Historical Ciberia studies: “Grishaev readings” in Krasnoyarsk………………..189

SERGEY TIKHONOVICH GAIDIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 660049, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira, 90.

IRINA PETROVNA PAVLOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 660049, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira, 90. E-mail: iripa@inbox.ru

In Krasnoyarsk on 11 September 2018, there was a significant event for historians: the first all-Russian scientific conference “Grishaev readings”, dedicated to the memory of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, honored worker of the higher school Vasily Grishaev.