Klio #10 (202) 2023

Smirnova A.P. (St. Petersburg). Civilizational and staged (linear) approach to the historical development of society from the point of view of the principle of complementarity

Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: asmirnova78@gmail.com

Abstract. The article examines the criteria for assessing the social development of the state. The author emphasizes two approaches to such an assessment: civilizational and stage-based (linear). It is noted that both approaches have the right to exist and complement each other. The concept of “civilization” is assessed from the point of view of A. Ferguson, a Scottish philosopher and historian who introduced this term into scientific circulation. The various meanings of the concept “civilization” are explored. An assessment is made of the efforts of G. Hegel, who attempted to give a complete picture of world history. The significant role in the study of the problem of historical development of such outstanding scientists as O. Comte, D. Bell, F. Engels, W.W. Rostow is emphasized. A special contribution to the study of the process of historical development was made by N.Ya. Danilevsky, O. Spengler and A. Toynbee. According to the author, both methods of studying the history of society complement each other, thereby compensating for existing shortcomings.
Keywords: historical development, civilizational approach, staged approach, linear approach, society, principle of complementarity

Alekseev A.N. (St. Petersburg). “Printed decrees”: on the issue of establishing paper money in the Russian Empire

Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 4, St. Petersburg

Abstract. The article, based on archival documents and extensive historiography, examines the economic consequences of the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763). At that time, coins from several states were in circulation on the territory of East Prussia, which significantly complicated the economic situation in the territory annexed to the Russian Empire. The article provides an analysis of the measures taken by Russian financial authorities aimed at normalizing monetary relations in the region. Among the measures was the opening and operation of a new mint in Königsberg, where silver coins were minted according to the “Moscow” model. For this purpose, 400 pounds of silver were sent to Koenigsberg, while 600 pounds of this precious metal were allocated to Moscow for the needs of the empire. In order to ensure an uninterrupted supply of everything necessary to the troops of the Russian army located on the territory of East Prussia, the government decided to issue special “printed decrees”, which essentially served as bills of exchange. These measures made it possible to stabilize the financial situation in the region.
Keywords: “Printed decrees”, paper money in Russia, bills, banknotes, Seven Years’ War

Kasparov A.I. (Volgograd). Arnulf and Scariberga. Sources about the holy couple and hagiographic tradition

degree applicant
Volgograd State University
400062, Volgograd, Universitetsky pr., 100
e-mail: akdrama@mail.ru

Abstract. The hagiographical texts about the holy married couple Arnulf of Tours and Scariberga are five texts. These texts rarely attract the attention of researchers and individually are not of particular interest for the Merovingian period, to which the lives of these saints belong. All lives about them were created quite late and do not reflect the realities of the time being described. However, considering these texts together makes it possible to trace the development of these cults in different periods and give a dating to each of the texts. Such critiques demonstrate the extensive use of hagiography about these Merovingian saints to advance claims in the Carolingian period and anti-celibacy propaganda in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Keywords: Arnulf, Scariberga, saint, Sigebert of Gembloux, church history, hagiographic sources

Li Yan (Vladivostok). Views of Russian and Chinese researchers on the history of Russian Tianjin (beginning of ХХ century): historiographic review

Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Archeology of the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok), senior lecturer of Heihe University (China),
690922, Russia, Vladivostok, Ajaks, 10.
Email: yuanlai418@163.com

Abstract. In the first half of the XX century Tianjin was the third center of Russian emigration in China after Harbin and Shanghai. Representatives of the Russian emigrant community conducted a variety of commercial and social activities in this city. Its foundation was laid by the opening of the Russian Concession, the Russian-Asian Bank and other pre-revolutionary public organizations. The article examines scientific works of different years on the history of Russian Tianjin by emigrant I.I. Serebrennikov, American historian P.P. Balakshin, scientific publications of Russian scholars G.V. Melikhov, N.D. Staroselskaya, E.E. Aurilene, S.V. Smirnov, E.N. Nazemtseva, A.M. Buyakov, M.E. Bazilevich and A.A. Khisamutdinov, as well as Chinese scientists Wu Yanqiu and Liang Ying, who published their articles in Russian, are analyzed. Articles and monographs published in Chinese (Du Likun, Liu Zhongzhi, Fan Jianchang, Song Anna, Wang Wenrui, Zhou Enyu, Li Xinggeng, Li Yijin and Yao Shixin) have great significance. The thematic diversity of available scientific materials on the history of Russian Tianjin indicates the steady interest of researchers in this problem. Summing up the results of this research, the author concludes that at the moment there are no comprehensive studies on the history of the Russian community in Tianjin, which determines the prospects for further scientific work in this direction.
Keywords: Russian emigration in China, Russian Tianjin, Russian literature, Chinese literature, emigration historiography

Alekseeva L.V. (Nizhnevartovsk), Kovaleva O.A. (Tyumen). Priority issues of rear everyday life (1941–1945) in Soviet historiography

Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,
Professor of Records Management and Russian History Department,
Nizhnevartovsk State University
628600, Russia, Nizhnevartovsk, Mira str., 3 B
e-mail: lvalexeeva@mail.ru

postgraduate student of Records Management and Russian History Department,
Nizhnevartovsk State University
625023, Russia, Tyumen, Odessa str., 54
e-mail: koa94-72@mail.ru 

Abstract. The subject is the priority issues of the Soviet historiography of the home front. Three stages of its development have been identified, within each of them have been singled out the main works on the subject, and their brief analysis and synthesis have been presented. This allowed us to identify the priority directions and subjects considered by the researchers of the home front: the restructuring of the economy on a war footing; industrial and agricultural production; population and labour exploits. By identifying the research direction of the article as “home front everyday life”, the authors concluded that historians of those years did not study the Soviet home front in the paradigm of the everyday life history, but touched upon the study of various aspects of everyday life on the home front without using this concept. Aspects of everyday life of the population of different groups, demographic processes, and the history of military childhood were studied to a lesser extent by Soviet researchers.
Keywords: historiography, everyday life, home front, historian, research

Artemenkova K.P. (St. Petersburg). Rumors about the Brunswick family in the British press in the 1740s–1750s

Postgraduate student of St. Petersburg University.
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleyevskaya Liniya, 5.
E-mail: artemen-ksen@mail.ru 

Abstract. The study is the first one that examines the news about the Brunswick family. They were published in British newspapers of the XVIII century during the reign of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. The volume and reliability of news about Anna Leopoldovna, Anton Ulrich and their children are characterized, and the main types of information on the former Russian rulers are also revealed. Thanks to British newspapers, readers could at least somewhat correctly make judgments about the changes in the attitude of the Russian court toward the Brunswick family. The author comes to the conclusion that the newspaper reports did little harm to the reputation of the Russian Empress in Great Britain and in Europe. Since they rarely appeared in the press, most of them were of a neutral nature or reflected the propaganda of the St. Petersburg court, which assured the good treatment of prisoners.
Keywords: Brunswick family, John VI, Anna Leopoldovna, Anton Ulrich, Elizaveta Petrovna, British press of the 18th century

Kozlov A.P. (St. Petersburg). State farm construction in Kazakhstan during the first five-year plans (1928-1937)

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Military-Political Work in the Armed Forces Department,
Military Institute of Physical Training
194044, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Bolshoy Sampsonievskiy Prospect, 63.
Е-mail: petrovich138@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the state farm construction in Kazakhstan during the first Soviet five-year plan. In modern Russian historiography, which focused on the study of the socialist reconstruction of agriculture in the late 1920s – early 1930s on collective farms, insufficient attention is paid to another the agriculture organization forms the USSR – state farms. According to the author, in some regions of the country, including Kazakhstan, due to its socio-economic and cultural-historical specifics, the state farm construction during the agriculture forced modernization years, gained a wide scope and significantly influenced the economy agricultural sector development as a whole. The article examines the state farm management system formation in the region, the central and local authorities’ role and place; the state farms economic and economic activities features; search for mechanisms of labor optimization in state farms, motivation of workers and employees of state farms in order to increase labor productivity; the further state farm system evolution, which allowed it to become and remain the agricultural production dominant form in Kazakhstan until its sovereignization in 1991.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, personal subsidiary plot, modernization, state farm, state farm construction, socialist reconstruction of agriculture

Voronov V.P. (Moscow). Trade cooperation between Russia and Brazil in 2022

postgraduate student, Department of New and Contemporary History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prosp., 27, bldg. 4
Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6417-7476
e-mail: valervoronov@gmail.com

Abstract. Based on a wide range of domestic and foreign Internet resources, the author analyzes the dynamics of trade contacts between the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Brazil in 2022. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the conditions of the special operation and the subsequent package of sanctions from the collective West, our country managed to establish closer and more effective ties with such states as China, India, members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), members of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and BRICS. Since 2016, there has been a noticeable increase in interaction with the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). Brazil took advantage of the situation and strengthened trade exchanges with the Russian Federation: when supplying agricultural goods to Russia, it primarily purchases potash fertilizers and a wide range of other products.
Keywords: Russia, Brazil, trade, cooperation, 2022

Shtyrbul A.A. (Omsk). The Social Banditism as a Historical Phenomenon (some aspects)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Department of General History, Sociology and Political Science,
Omsk State Pedagogical University,
644099, 14 Naberezhnaya Tukhachevskogo, OSPU,
e-mail: shtyrbu_97@omdpu.ru

Abstract. One of the most striking and unusual, “exotic” forms of social resistance in class society and, especially, in the Middle Ages and the first period of the Modern Age, was social robbery or social banditism, the manifestations of which can be observed in different civilizations, countries and regions of the world of that time. The presented article shows the main historiographic approaches in the study of the phenomenon, the facts of its reflection in folk art, the main manifestations, destinies and general features of social banditry as a historical phenomenon in different civilizational, national and historical conditions, its difference from ordinary banditism. The article addresses such characteristic aspects of social banditism as the self-awareness of the participants in this movement, the patterns of its emergence and development, as well as its main characteristic stages, struggle tactics (in fact, partisan), the role of the leader, a kind of altruism in relation to the masses, the role of women, perception of the phenomenon by the masses.
Keywords: Social banditism, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age, Class resistance, morality

Bolshakov M.V. (Moscow). Features of the study of the intangible cultural heritage of peasants by the example of the analysis of the wedding ceremony of the Zaraisk district of the Ryazan province of the second half of the XIX century

Mikhail Vladimirovich Bolshakov
Postgraduate student, leading researcher
Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia”. 6 Miklukho-Maklaya str., Moscow, 117198.
E-mail: mishapram.1997@gmail.com

Abstract. The issues of the regional traditional culture of peasants are relevant today, as they have a direct applied significance in the museum and cultural sphere. It is very important to preserve the intangible cultural heritage in certain regions. 

The study used archival material from the late XIX and early XX centuries. We emphasize that one of the documents has not been considered before and is being analyzed for the first time. The research also used the works of leading experts in this field: E.A. Samodelova, L.A. Tultseva. During the study, the method of comparative analysis and the method of data systematization were used for document processing.

Three examples of wedding ritual actions recorded on the territory of Zaraisky uyezd in different parts of it were compared. In the course of the study, the stages of working with documents describing ritual traditions were highlighted: 1) Study of written sources on the intangible culture of the peasants of the area under consideration; 2) determination of the period and place of existence of the national holiday and ritual; 3) identification of characteristic features; 4) comparative analysis of identical rituals; 5) determination of changes; 6) conclusions. 

The conclusion was made about the preservation of archaic traditions in the wedding ceremony of the Zaraisk district (in the southern part), the appearance of new ritual actions at the end of the XIX century. This study confirms the fact of transformation of traditional rituals of Russians. Also in conclusion, we came to the conclusion that the more archaic the rite, the fewer traditional actions it includes and vice versa.
Keywords: ethnography, peasantry, rite, wedding, traditional culture, Ryazan province, Zaraisky district

Burnasheva N.I., Kovlekov I.I. (Yakutsk). Artisanal gold mining in Yakutia (second half of the 19th century)

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Institute for Humanitarian Research and
North Indigenous People Problems of
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Department of History, Leading Researcher.
677020, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1.
e-mail: n_burnasheva@mail.ru

Doctor of Technical Sciences
North-Eastern Federal University
named after M.K. Ammosov, professor
677013, Russia, Yakutsk, Belinskogo, 58
e-mail: Kovlekov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to artisanal gold mining – a special type of entrepreneurial activity, that became widespread in the gold mining of the Yakut region in the second half of the 19th century. The process of gradual expansion of the activity of the gold mines of the Olekminsk and Vitim river’s systems is considered, which led to the emergence of the gold mines in the 1880s a special category of workers – artisanal miners, who under agreements with the administration of the mines were engaged in the gold panning. The work of artisanal miners contributed to an increase the production of gold at the mines and, at the same time, provided workers with the opportunity to receive earnings that actually exceeded income from business activities in other sectors of local handicraft production. It is shown that the development of gold mining opened up prospects for the growth of entrepreneurial initiative of the local population in other areas of economic life in Yakutia. This was mainly due to the efforts of the Yakut regional administration to organize the supply of food to the population of the mine areas, the provision of handicraft and household services, and the delivery of cargo and timber to the mines. It has been established that, having demonstrated the contrast in the level of development of local handicraft and mining production, the gold industry has opened up prospects for the Yakut economy to transition to market relations and the development of entrepreneurship.
Keywords: artisanal mining, gold mining industry, entrepreneurship, handicraft industry, gold mines

Rybak O.V. (Maloyaroslavets). Features of state-church interaction: church-civil decrees and the nature of the execution of punishments in monasteries using the example of the St. Nicholas Chernoostrovsky Monastery in Maloyaroslavets

postgraduate student of the Department of Complex Humanities Russian State Social University (RSSU),
public relations specialist
The Center for Orthodox Media.
249096, Russia, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluzhskaya str. 4,
e-mail: olgarybak15@gmail.com

Abstract. The article reveals the features of state-church interaction in the system of social service in matters of execution of punishments in monasteries on the example of the detention of criminals in St. Nicholas Chernoostrovsky Monastery. To achieve this goal, the author considers the decrees regulating the definition of criminals for maintenance in monasteries, the social composition of persons serving penance, the main types of crimes for which they served church penance and the procedure for bringing to justice. The involvement of the abbot in the correction of criminals is analyzed. His task was to personally monitor the spiritual dispensation of the penitent and report to the Kaluga Spiritual Consistory information about repentance, obedience, spiritual growth of the reformed, or the opposite. In the course of the research, the author used the method of content analysis, comparative historical and narrative method. For the first time, the materials of the State Archive of the Kaluga Region of the St. Nicholas Chernoostrovsky Monastery Foundation have been put into scientific circulation. The twenty-year period of detention of criminals in this monastery was determined and a fragmentary definition of criminals in this monastery in other different years of the XIX century was revealed. Criminals serving penance in an Orthodox monastery is considered as part of the social service of the monastery under study. Scientific publications, legislative documents, including the Complete Collection of laws of the Russian Empire have been studied.
Keywords: state-church interaction, social service of monasteries, maintenance of criminals, Maloyaroslavetsky monastery, Kaluga diocese, serving penance

Hieromonk Nikodim (D.V. Khmyrov) (St. Petersburg). “Allow Father Protopresbyter Izraztsov to be called Monsenor in Spanish”: on the formation and development of parish life of the Russian Orthodox emigration in the countries of South America in the 1920s.

Ph.D. in History, Ph.D. in Theology,
Associate Professor Department of Theology,
Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy named after F.M. Dostoevsky
191011, Saint Petersburg, Embankment River Fontanka, 15.
e-mail: Hmyrovdenis@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the church life of Russian Orthodox emigration in the states of South America such as Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru in the 1920s. It is based on the materials not introduced earlier into scientific turnover of the journals of sessions of the supreme governing body of Russian Church Abroad – The Synod of Bishops with the involvement of the newest research. The research leads to the formulation of a comprehensive scientific problem – to the investigation of formation and development of the church life of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia in the period between the wars. The life of Russian Orthodox emigration in South America is insufficiently explored, but takes an important place in the overall context of the history of the Russian Orthodox diaspora of the twentieth century. There are some reports, messages and letters from Russian clergymen to the Synod of Bishops and the latter’s answers that are analyzed in the article, that include an analysis of problems in such spheres as church building, charity and missionary activities, the rallying around the church of members of Russian colonies, shows ways to overcome material and other difficulties. There is also mentioned the theme about inter-Christian and inter-Orthodox contacts. The attention in the article is focused on an outstanding personality – on protopresbyter Konstantin Izraztsov, the governing of Russian Churches in South America.
Keywords: Orthodoxy, Russian Church Outside of Russia, Russian Church Abroad, Russian diaspora, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Peru, The Synod of Bishops, Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), Metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky), protopresbyter Konstantin Izraztsov, Buenos Aires, Asunción, São Paulo, Montevideo, Russian Colony

Evstratchik A.A., Konovalova O.V. (Krasnoyarsk). Features of the organization of the January 1905 strike by the Krasnoyarsk Committee of the Social Democratic Party among railway workers

Assistant of the Department of History of Russia, World and Regional Civilizations of SFU,
Siberian Federal University
82 a Svobodny Ave., Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
e-mail: G2010ANNIT-95@yandex.ru

Professor of the Department of Humanities and Socio-Economic Disciplines of the SibIU of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
Siberian Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
660131, Russia, Krasnoyarsk, ul.-Rokossovsky 20;
Professor of the History of Russia, World and Regional Civilizations of SFU
Siberian Federal University
82 a Svobodny Ave., Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
e-mail: olgav—k@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article deals with the strike of workers of the Krasnoyarsk Main railway workshops and depots on January 17, 1905. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the reasons that prompted the railway workers of Krasnoyarsk to take part in the strike, and the personal composition of its organizers is also considered. The problem of postponing the date of the strike is highlighted separately, the authors suggest that the strike was repeatedly postponed because most workers were not interested in it. For the first time, not only the role of the Social Democratic Party in the preparation of the strike among railway workers in Krasnoyarsk on January 17, 1905, but also the attitude of the participants themselves to the events taking place is considered. The article raises the question of the number of striking workers and the duration of the strike. For this purpose, a comparative analysis is carried out according to historiography and archival materials. The authors conclude that the workers who took part in the strike were persecuted primarily economically, not politically
Keywords: railway workers; Krasnoyarsk Committee of the Social Democratic Party; The First Russian Revolution; strike; strike; revolutionary movement; Bolsheviks; Siberian Social Democratic Union

Hippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). The Mongolian operation of 1921: the experience of a lapidary military-historical research

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara)
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
e-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru 

Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor, Head of the Department of philosophy of the Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics (Samara)
443010, Samara, st. L. Tolstoy, 23.
e-mail: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

Abstract. The fighting of the 5th Separate Red Army, the People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic (NRA FER) and the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Army (MNRA) against the White Guard troops of Lieutenant General R.F. Ungern (June-August 1921) entered the history of Soviet military art under the name “Mongolian operation of 1921”. It is a unique military-historical phenomenon that has occupied its niche in the history of Soviet military art in its component part – the history of operational art. What is characteristic: this military-historical phenomenon has not only a purely military significance, although it is great, but also a military-political significance. After all, the Mongolian operation was a vivid demonstration of effective assistance from the Russian Socialist Federative Republic (RSFSR) and the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) [RKP (b)] ruling in it to the revolutionary forces that became the head of the Mongolian national democratic revolution in 1921. Naturally, the Mongolian operation of 1921 also has its own history of study (mainly in Soviet military history). This lapidary military-historical study, made in the format of a scientific article, highlights the plans of the warring parties, the course and results of the Mongolian operation. The theoretical and methodological foundations of the article are the approaches, principles, methods that have become established in modern Russian military history at the current moment of its development.
Keywords: Civil War in Russia, Mongolia, 5th Separate Red Army, NRA FER, MNRA, Horse-Asian Division, Expeditionary Corps of the 5th Separate Red Army, V.I. Lenin, R.F. Ungern, D. Sukhe-Bator, H. Choibalsan, K.A. Neumann

Azarevich V.K. (Vladivostok). Foreign activities of the Vladivostok Guard Department in 1907-1917

Research Fellow, Research Department, Vladimir K. Arseniev Museum of Far East History
690091, Vladivostok, 20 Svetlanskaya St.,
e-mail: v.k.azarevich@gmail.com

Abstract. In the article, on the basis of archival materials of the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, the Russian State Historical Archive, the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History, the history of the Vladivostok Guard Department in Japan and China is considered. With the help of analysis of previously unpublished documents the reasons for the beginning of this activity, its goals and successes in the struggle against the parties of socialist-revolutionaries and RSDRP are shown. It is shown that the activity of the Vladivostok Security Branch abroad was a reaction to the events of the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, and its success largely depended on the general state of Russian-Japanese relations. The use of agents and the data obtained from them made it possible to establish links between the revolutionary centers in China and Japan in Shanghai and Nagasaki, the sources of their financing and partially identify the composition of revolutionary organizations. It was also possible to identify what types of revolutionary activities were considered the most dangerous by tsarist officials. The activity of revolutionary parties in emigration weakened after the defeat of the revolution and the active work of the political police of the Russian Empire. Despite the successes of the political police, their work could not completely destroy the revolutionary movement in the country.
Keywords: Vladivostok Guard Department, Okhrana, Vladivostok Fortress’s Gendarmes Team, Political Investigation, Vladivostok, Nagasaki, Shanghai, Revolutionary Movement in the Far East

Gapsalamov A.R., Bochkareva T.N., Vasiliev V.L. (Yelabuga), Mukhamedov R.A. (Ulyanovsk). Comparative analysis of the industrialization process of countries of the world: using the example of the USSR and the USA

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Head of the Department of Economics and Management
423600, 89 Kazanskaya str., Yelabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation,
e-mail: gapsalamov@yandex.ru

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogy,
423600, Russian Federation, Republic of Tatarstan, Yelabuga, ul. Kazanskaya, 89,
e-mail: tatyana-n-boch@mail.ru

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management,
423600, 89 Kazanskaya str., Yelabuga, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation,
e-mail: vasvladlev@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I. N. Ulyanov, Professor of the Department of History,
432071, Russian Federation, 4/5 Lenin Square, Ulyanovsk,
e-mail: rasit56@mail.ru

Abstract. The relevance of the article is due to the current stage of development of the world economy. The driving forces of economic growth are undergoing a transformation – from industrial capital to intellectual labor and digital technologies. In this regard, there is growing interest in the historical analysis of the driving forces of the past transition – from agricultural production and physical labor to industrial capital and mechanization of production. This transition was based on the processes of industrialization of society and the economy. Comparison of industrialization processes in different countries will allow us to further reveal the modern processes of digitalization and innovation economy. For the historical analysis of industrialization processes, the USSR and the USA were chosen. These countries had different historical and ideological conditions for industrialization. Various economic instruments were used for industrialization – from free market relations to a rigid administrative-planning vertical management. As a result of the historical analysis, criteria for comparing the processes of industrialization in the USSR and the USA were formulated, which include the influence of external social upheavals, the ideological basis of industrial development, internal problems and costs, the scale and speed of achieving the goals of reforms. An analysis was also carried out of the main statistical indicators of the USSR and the USA during the years of industrialization, such as gross domestic product (GDP), population, industrial production, and the contribution of industry to total GDP. In general, original author’s results were obtained comparing the industrialization processes of two countries in the context of enriching historical research.
Keywords: historical analysis, industrialization processes, structure of gross domestic product, population, industrial development, ideological foundations of the economy, costs and results of reforms

Vorob’ev D.A., Semenova M.M. (Kirovsk, Leningrad region). Partisan detachment № 164 and its role in the creation of the ice route “The Road of Life”

Postgraduate student
Saint Petersburg Institute of History Russian Academy of Sciences
197110, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya,7.
Museum-reserve “Breakthrough of the Siege of Leningrad”
 187342, Russian Federation, Leningrad region, Kirovsk, Ladoga bridge, 2.
E-mail: dmitrij_vorobev_96@mail.ru 

museum-reserve “Breakthrough of the Siege of Leningrad”
187342, Russian Federation, Leningrad region, Kirovsk, Ladoga bridge, 2.
E-mail: mariamisakova@mail.ru

Abstract. The Road of Life played a very important role for Leningrad during the blockade. Along this route, which passed through Lake Ladoga, a total of 1 million 615 thousand tons of various cargoes were transported and 1 million 376 thousand people were evacuated from the city. On September 12, 1941, the waterway began to operate, but with the onset of frost in October of the same year, it began to work with great difficulty. The leadership of Leningrad urgently needed to develop an ice track. The first plans for its creation appeared in September 1941, but the problem was that the ice features of Lake Ladoga were insufficiently studied by scientists. An important role in this process was played by the partisan detachment No. 164, which crossed Lake Ladoga on ice on November 11-14, 1941. The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that this event was superficially sanctified in historical literature. The authors of the article analyze in detail the features of the transition of the ice of Lake Ladoga by the partisans and the conditions under which they managed to do it. The work emphasizes that not only the party leadership of Leningrad, but also the command of the Leningrad Front immediately learned about this transition, which subsequently influenced not only the further study of the ice of Lake Ladoga, but also the development of the ways of the ice route “The Road of Life”.
Keywords: partisan detachment № 164, the siege of Leningrad, the Road of Life, the ice route, Lake Ladoga, Leningrad region, Kirovsky district, Kingisepp district, the Great Patriotic War

Polyansky M.S., Agaeva D.M. (Moscow). Penal military units of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army during the Second World War: the purpose and features of the formation

chief researcher of the Research Center (fundamental
military-historical problems) Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences,
 Professor Military University of the Ministry
of Defense of the Russian Federation,
125047, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: m-s-pol@yandex.ru

researcher of the Research Center (fundamental
military-historical problems), the Military University of the Ministry
of Defence of the Russian Federation,
125047, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14
e-mail: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the penal battalions of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army, their appearance, purpose and differences. Officially, the penal battalions of the Wehrmacht were called “probation”, but the Germans themselves called them “ascension teams”, and the penal guards – “the living dead”. Penal companies and battalions of the Red Army were formed in accordance with the order of the Supreme Commander No. 227, dated July 28, 1942. The appearance of this order was due to the need to establish the strictest order and iron military discipline. Penal military units both in the Red Army and in the troops of Nazi Germany during the war were used in the most dangerous areas to break through enemy defenses, capture bridgeheads and conduct reconnaissance by combat. In terms of their quantitative composition, weapons and combat tasks performed, they did not pretend to be a decisive force. However, this category of military personnel had a characteristic purpose for penal guards. The article attempts to compare not so much the achieved results of the use of penalty units, as to show their difference.
Keywords: penal battalions, penal companies, Wehrmacht, Red Army, military units, criminals, prisoners of war, soldiers, officers, Dirlewanger, correctional battalions

Rusanov I.N. (Omsk). Musical underground in the sociocultural landscape of the USSR in the second half of the 1950-s — 1970-s: from “double identity” to “dvoemirie”

aspirant of the department of Russian History Omsk State Pedagogical University
644024, Russian Federation, Omsk, Lermontov st., 4a
Email: i.rusanov@st.omgpu.ru

Abstract. The article examines the change in the identity of Soviet citizens within the local communities of the musical underground of the USSR during the second half of the 1950-s — 1970-s under the influence of changes in the cultural policy of the Soviet government. The influence of Western culture, as well as Soviet politics, on the formation of a situation of «double identity» within individuals belonging to the local communities of the musical underground of the USSR is determined. The causes and consequences of the formation of «double identity» are established using the example of local communities of the USSR musical underground, as well as the circumstances of its transformation into «dvoemirie». A general description of the state cultural policy of the USSR of the designated period is given, as well as its influence on the sociocultural context of Soviet society. The reasons for the construction of ideas and spaces of «vnenahodimost’i» within the Soviet sociocultural landscape are identified.
Keywords: musical underground of the USSR, unofficial culture of the USSR, identity, dual identity, «dvoemirie», «vnenahodimost’»

Trukhanovich E.V. (St. Petersburg). To “figure out” the idea of M.S. Gorbachev (An attempt by the US special services to predict the plans of the USSR in December 1987)

Applicant for the degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Pushkin Leningrad State University,
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Petersburgskoye shosse, 10
e-mail: msKattrin@yandex.ru

Abstract. On December 8-10, 1987, a summit of the leaders of the USSR and the USA was held in Washington. The focus was on the signing of the treaty on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles.

The President of the United States, R. Reagan, for a number of reasons, did not trust many intelligence services of his country, but he paid attention to the data provided to him by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the US State Department. This intelligence structure conducted intelligence and analytical work shortly before the summit, trying to understand Gorbachev’s plans for the upcoming negotiations. As a result, this Bureau prepared a short but very succinct document in which an attempt was made to predict the intentions and actions of the Soviet leader during the summit.

The document was prepared for review by the US President on November 28, 1987, i.e. almost two weeks before the scheduled event. In view of the special importance of the analytical note, it was presented to R. Reagan’s closest aide, Secretary of State J. Schultz.

Currently, this document is stored in the US National Security Archive. The original language is English. The text was translated by the author of the publication.
Keywords: 1987 Summit in Washington, USA, USSR, Perestroika, New thinking

Zakharova D.E. (Vladivostok). Stages of developing a strategy for state youth policy in the Russian Federation (late 20th – early 21st century)

2nd year graduate student at the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
690001, Russia. Vladivostok, st. Pushkinskaya, 89,
e-mail: dzaharova1194@gmail.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to the scientific understanding of the process of forming state youth policy strategy in the Russian Federation at the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century. The chosen time period is characterized by a fundamental transition from the Soviet system of work with youth to the construction of modern priority areas of the youth policy strategy and its goals. By aligning the youth policy strategy with the challenges of the time, we are convinced of fundamental changes in the attitude towards youth and note their connection with the practice of state development. In modern history, individualization, self-realization and comprehensive development of the younger generation are becoming a priority. There is a change in political orientation from the “youth for the state” scheme to the “state and youth” scheme, focused on changing institutional relations and involving young people in solving social problems. In order to study the issue, the main components of youth policy are considered: legislative regulation, structural renewal, updating of methodological approaches. The analysis of the strategy took into account the key socio-economic factors that influenced its changes.
Keywords: state youth policy, youth policy strategy, legal regulation of youth policy, youth public organizations, youth

Chyornaya N.V. (St. Petersburg). The problem of interpretation of the legend about the birth of Anna Maria Zieglerin

Master’s student of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Master’s program “Studies of Mystical and esoteric teachings”,
196135, Russia, St. Petersburg, Yuri Gagarin Avenue, 21-159
e-mail: natatasky@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines biographical facts and describes the legend of the birth of Anna Maria Zieglerin, a female alchemist of German origin, and makes a comparative analysis of the birth myth of Zieglerin with various types of myths in order to identify its features. In addition to the comparative analysis of myths, the work uses the analysis of individual myths. The main source of this work was the monograph of the American researcher Tara Nummedal «Anna Zieglerin and the Lion’s Blood: Alchemy and End Times in Reformation Germany». This source has not been translated into Russian and some excerpts are published for the first time, which is the scientific novelty of the proposed study. The work combines biographical data about the life of Anna Zieglerin with a wide range of comparative mythology data, which allows you to look at the work of a female alchemist in a broad cultural and historical retrospective and trace the formation of a special «female» and related problems. The birth myth of Zieglerin is revealed in the work to be the key not only to her biography, but also to the alchemical practice. The conclusion suggests a hypothesis explaining the myth based on biographical data and comparative analysis.
Keywords: comparative analysis, birth myth, comparative mythology, alchemy, alchemy mythology, Anna Maria Zieglerin

Klinko M.-V. M. (Moscow). Professor of Moscow University J.M. Schaden and the edition of “Orbis Pictus” of 1768

Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Russia before the beginning of the 19th century
Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, building 4. 119192
e-mail: vosmik@mail.ru

Abstract. In 1768, the first edition of J.A. Comenius’s work “Orbis Pictus” took place in Russia. The work named “Visible Light” in Russian translation was printed in the printing house of Moscow University and was intended for its students. The purpose of this article is to study the features that Orbis Pictus acquired on Russian soil, as well as to identify the contribution made to this publication by its direct executor, Professor of the Moscow University of German origin J.M. Schaden. For that purpose, the linguistic context of the Moscow University of the second half of the XVIII century is first considered, as this context paved the way for the publication of this textbook. Further, the motives of Professor Schaden, which prompted him to work on Comenius’s textbook, and his strategies reflected in the preface to “Visible Light” and in the features of the textbook itself are revealed. Separately, the issue of the absence of illustrations in the manual of 1768 is touched upon. As a result, it is suggested that the publication of “Visible Light” in 1768 was driven by Schaden’s desire to improve the situation with the teaching of foreign languages, and the distinctive features of this textbook were due to the personal professional views of the German professor and the objective Russian conditions of that epoch.
Keywords: Latin language, Schaden, Comenius, “Visible Light”, language training, education, Moscow University

Rostovtsev E.A., Goltsov N.V. (St. Petersburg). Historian S.N. Dranitsyn and his memories of St. Petersburg University

Doctor of History, Associate Professor,
Professor of the Department of History of Russia from ancient times to the 20th century of Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University.
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, University Emb., 7-9.
E-mail: e.rostovtsev@spbu.ru

research assistant
of Institute of History of St. Petersburg State University;
1st category librarian of the Manuscripts Department
of the National Library of Russia
199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, University Emb., 7-9.
E-mail: goltsov-nikita@mail.ru

Abstract. Sergey Nikanorovich Dranitsyn (1879-1956) – a graduate of the historical and philological and a free student of the law faculties of St. Petersburg University, a participant in the revolutionary movement, after 1917 – a teacher in a number of higher educational institutions, author of a series of works on Soviet law and the history of Russia after the reform period, Doctor of historical sciences, professor. This article is based on the materials of the scientist’s personal fund from the collection of the Manuscripts Department of the National Library of Russia. It gives a brief overview of the life and scientific path of S.N. Dranitsyn and published a chapter of his “Memoirs”, dedicated to the years of study at St. Petersburg University. The main characters of this memoir are professors and teachers of two faculties of the capital University of the early twentieth century. Among them are philosopher A.I. Vvedensky, Egyptologist B.A. Turaev, antiquarians E.D. Grimm, M. I. Rostovtsev, F.F. Zelinsky, S.A. Zhebelev, historians of Russia S.F. Platonov, A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky, Slavist A.I. Sobolevsky, lawyers V.I. Sergeevich, L.I. Petrazhitsky, N.D. Sergeevsky, D.D. Grimm, V.N. Latkin, F.F. Martens, economists L.V. Khodsky, V.V. Svyatlovsky, canonist M.I. Gorchakov and a number of other prominent scientists.  The publication is accompanied by a scientific commentary prepared by the authors of the article.
Keywords: memoirs, history of St. Petersburg University, Faculty of Law, Faculty of History and Philology, professors, S.N. Dranitsyn

Lapina I.Yu., Guriev E.P. (St. Petersburg). Worldview principles of Russian civilization in the course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood”

Head of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Ingineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya stree t, 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: clio@spbgasu.ru

Abstract. The article defends in a polemical form the idea of the development of Russian civilization. Based on an extensive historiography and source base, the authors reflect on the civilizational approach in looking at the past of our state. They consider its main advantage to be the “humanization” of the historical process. Among the main values of civilization are mentality, political consciousness, and spiritual culture. An important place is given to the analysis of the formation process of the state-civilization ideology. The authors declare the existence of a value core of Russian civilization. Its basis is faith, thriftiness, house-building, service, conciliarity, sovereignty, truth, justice, love, compassion, conscience, freedom as good will, beauty, and human dignity. The mission of the state is to protect these values and create conditions for their further development.
Keywords: Worldview, Russian civilization, Russian statehood, patriotism, morality