Klio #11 (203) 2023


Lagunov A.K. (Moscow). Features of the activities of Baron Ungern reflection during the Civil War in the memoirs of the Asian Division participants

Graduate student,
Departments of Auxiliary Historical Disciplines and Archeography
Faculty of History of the Historical and Archival Institute of RSUH
103012, Russia, Moscow, Nikolskaya str., 15,
E-mail: a.lag@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the peculiarities of reflecting the activities of Baron R.F. von Ungern-Sternberg during the Civil War in the memoirs of the participants of the Asian Division. The research examines the information provided by memoirists about the Daurian period of Baron Ungern’s activity and the Mongol campaign, in which the most vividly investigated problem is demonstrated when the memoirists cover the situation in Urga, after its capture by the Ungernovites and when considering the reasons for the unsuccessful “Campaign to Russia” of the Asian Division. The information provided by the memoirists is compared with the positions of researchers on this issue, similarities and differences in interpretations of the activities of the Asian Division in the Far East and Mongolia are noted. Attention is also drawn to the source situation on the topic of the Mongolian campaign of the Asian Division, the lack of operational documentation of this period, on the basis of which memories sometimes appear to be an alternative source from which researchers analyze information on the topic under consideration, and then popularized in society. Based on this, the importance of the memories of Baron Ungern’s activities is established, but at the same time, the shortcomings of the memories of the members of the Asian Division as a source are also noted, which must be taken into account when analyzing the source material and this topic as a whole. A key feature is the subjective presentation of events, which may have the purpose of justifying, among other things, their involvement in the activities of Ungern. As a result of the study, a difference is established between the interpretations of memoirists and researchers of the present problem.
Keywords: Asian Division, Mongol campaign, Baron Ungern, Dauria, interpretations, memories


Mishkov R.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). Capital Entrepreneurship of Russian Germans of the Second Half of the XIX – early XX century: historiography of the issue

Laboratory assistant at the Scientific and Educational Center
of Historical Research and Analysis
Pushkin Leningrad State University
196605, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10, Pushkin, St. Petersburg
e-mail: crazyallover0@gmail.com

Abstract. The research interest is focused on pre–revolutionary, Soviet and modern Russian historiography, one way or another affecting St. Petersburg entrepreneurs of German nationality in Russian citizenship – Russian German entrepreneurs in the XIX – early XX century. The author comes to the conclusion that pre-revolutionary scientists did not study the entrepreneurial strata of national minorities, but only dealt with general issues, considered large, medium and small industries. Soviet scientists have achieved great success in the study of socio-economic history, considered both large and small industry, individual enterprises, banking houses, the ethnic composition of the population of St. Petersburg, issues of trade and industrial policy of the tsarist government and the attitude of the bourgeoisie to it, and a number of others. But the problem of studying the role of certain ethnic minorities in the economy was not raised during this period. Only modern historiography has put the question of independent study of German entrepreneurs in Russian citizenship on a serious scientific basis and has achieved significant success in recent years. Research is conducted in different directions, such as the history of families, individual factories, industries and others. However, there is still a very significant work ahead for researchers, since a number of aspects have not yet found their coverage.
Keywords: historiography, germans, russian Germans, entrepreneurship, large industry, medium industry, artisans, citizenship

Sirenko O.R., Sidnenko T.I. (St. Petersburg). The role of the younger generation of privileged layers of society in the formation of women’s medical education in Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century. Source-historiographic review

postgraduate student of the State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher
Education of the Leningrad Region Pushkin Leningrad State University,
2nd year, field: National History
196605, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoye shosse, 10.
е-mail: olgerduman@mail.ru.

Vice-Rector for Education of the Academy of Additional Professional Education, Doctor of historical sciences
195267, St. Petersburg, Ushinskogo str. 5, b. 1.
е-mail: sidnenko@list.ru

Abstract. The article covers the history of studying the development of the initial stage of the systematic medical education for women in Russia in the second half of the 19th century. It features a comparative analysis of the relationship between these events and the processes initiated in different groups of the Russian society by the reforms of the 1860-1870s and, first of all, the medical and military communities. The historiography of the issue is conditionally divided into three parts: before 1917, the Soviet period and the recent historical period, from 1992 till present. The authors confirmed the absence of interest to the study of the issue in the Soviet historiography. Conclusions are provided regarding the issue-related discourse of studying the features of development of higher medical education for women in Russia, the impact of this process on changes in the composition of society in the period under study at the contemporary stage. The authors have systematized the historiographic research of Russian scientists, singled out certain schools and scientific fields, studied conceptual framework features. Analysis of the historiographic methods of studying the development of the initial stage of women’s medical education is provided in the context of methodological approaches of the history of everyday life.
Keywords: Russian Empire, modernization, medical education, traditions, spirituality, historiography, source groups, history of education.


Kovalev B.N. (St. Petersburg). Defectors: traitors or heroes?

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher,
Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the RAS,
197110, Russia, St. Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya st., 7
Leading Researcher,
Institute of the History of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad
191028, Russia, St. Petersburg, per. Solyanoi, 9.
e-mail: bnkov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers the problem of “betrayal of the national flag” as voluntary defection to the enemy’s side during combat actions. The phenomenon under study was not unique as the armies of the other states taking part in World War II faced the same challenge. Attitudes towards this phenomenon have always been different and have varied, depending on the side of the conflict, from betrayal, treason against one’s comrades and the Motherland to the manifestation of civic engagement. When studying this phenomenon, it is necessary to take into account both the quality of the enemy’s propaganda and the real state of affairs on the fronts. In the article, special attention is paid to defectors of the so-called “neutral” ally of Nazi Germany – the Spanish Blue Division. In 1941 – 1943 it fought near Novgorod and Leningrad. The Blue Division took part in the siege of Leningrad. It should be noted that the division consisted not only of phalangist volunteers but also of former opponents of the Franco regime – communists and socialists who hoped to side with the Red Army taking any opportunity to do this. The Soviet intelligence services and propagandists faced a difficult task: to identify which of the prisoners was a real defector and which was an undercover agent.
Keywords: World War II, defectors, propaganda, captivity, USSR, Nazi Germany, allies of the Third Reich, Blue Division

Nasibova A.S. kzy (Saratov), Bayramov H.F. oglu (Kazan), Namazov R.Sh. (St. Petersburg). Relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey in the military sphere at the turn of the century: legal and political aspects 46

PhD in Historical Sciences
Saratov State Law Academy
Senior Lecturer at the Department of International Law
410028, Saratov, Saratov region, st. Chernyshevsky, 104.
e-mail: ayten-nasibova@mail.ru

Kazan Federal University
2nd year master’s student at the Faculty of Law
420008, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, st. Kremlevskaya, 18
e-mail: atillagts1501@gmail.com

St. Petersburg State University
2nd year master’s student at the Faculty of International Relations
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment, 7–9
e-mail: r.namazov53@gmail.com

Abstract. The article presented to the attention of readers is devoted to the history of formation and development of relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey in the military-political sphere. The lower chronological frame begins with the collapse of the Soviet Union – the formation of interstate relations between independent Azerbaijan and Turkey. The upper frame ends with the events of 2010, when strategic cooperation in the military sphere was founded, which has found its development to this day. The team of authors of the article attaches special importance to the international legal aspects of the formation of military-political relations – the bilateral documents that laid the legal basis for the military dialogue between the two countries are highlighted. It is concluded that during the period from 1991 to 2010, military-political relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey evolved from a policy of “soft power” to a strategic partnership. The traditions in bilateral relations established at that time are reflected in the present period. Taking into account the turbulence of modern international relations in the South Caucasus, an analysis of the history of military-political relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey is of particular relevance.
Keywords: South Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Turkey, region, agreement


Khotko S.Kh. (Republic of Adygea, Maykop). The Dichotomy of an ethnic culture of Adyges: between Caucasus and Steppe

Ph.D. in History,
Head of the Ethnology and Folk Art Department,
Adygean Republican Institute of
Humanitarian Researches named after Kerashev,
385000, Republic of Adygea, Maykop,
Krasnooktyabrskaya, 13
E-mail: inalast@mail.ru

Abstract. Ethnic culture is the result of adaptation to natural and geographical conditions. The very existence of such an ethnic group as the Adyghes, whose range was adjacent to the steppe and was at any time subject to raids by nomads, became possible as a result of natural and social adaptation. In this regard, horse breeding traditions and equestrian culture come to the fore, reflecting the methods and specifics of the adaptation of the autochthonous population of the North-Western Caucasus to the plain and steppe landscapes of the Kuban basin. Ecological adaptation in this area was accompanied by social adaptation to nomadic ethnic groups and led to increased militancy and mobility of the Circassians, the folding of hierarchical structures (chiefdoms). The adaptation of farmers to the steppe was expressed in the housing and settlement complex adapted to rapid evacuation, as well as in the Circassian saber and the Circassian horse. In the mountainous zone of the North-Western Caucasus, where the process of ethnogenesis of the Circassians and Abazins has never been interrupted, ecological adaptation has given rise to the phenomenon of “old Circassian gardens”, which includes forest garden and forest field management systems, selection of fruit and grain crops, environmental practices, conservation of forests and large animals (bison, deer). The social reflection of mountain ecological adaptation was the development of egalitarian communities.
Keywords: ethnic culture, social adaptation, hierarchy, mobility, Circassian horse, Circassian saber, egalitarianism, ecological adaptation, «old Circassian gardens», Circassian fruit crops, North-Western Caucasus

Mezhuev D.O. (St. Petersburg). Vice-Chancellor A.I. Osterman’s foreign policy course: Russia and Great Britain relations in 1725 – 1741

4th year postgraduate student, Department of History of Russia from Ancient Times to the Beginning of the19th Century, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
191186, St. Petersburg, Russia, Moika Embankment 48
e-mail: PNLafayette@gmail.com

Abstract. The article revises the process of development of the relations between Russia and Great Britain in 1725–1741 as a part of the formation of Vice-Chancellor A. I. Osterman’s Russian foreign policy course. The purpose of this paper is to study the continuity of Russian foreign policy towards Great Britain throughout the reign of Catherine I, Peter II, Anna Ioannovna, and Ivan VI. The article is based on record-keeping sources: correspondence materials of French and English representatives in Russia, correspondence of Vice-Chancellor A. I. Osterman. Documentary materials of the Collegium of Foreign Affairs from the Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences archives, namely minutes of meetings with foreign representatives in Russia and a daily note from the Collegium of Foreign Affairs. Particular emphasis in the study is placed on the consideration of relations between Russia and Great Britain in various foreign policy cases at different stages of the formation and development of A. I. Osterman’s foreign policy course. It was demonstrated that, despite the lack of official contacts, both states continued cooperation on a variety of European policy cases and had the intention to restore the relations. The process of restoring relations began immediately after the Catherine I death, but it was brought to completion only during the reign of Anna Ioannovna. A. I. Osterman’s foreign policy course pursued the goal of shifting the centre of gravity of the Russian foreign policy from the protection of the Austrian interests to Great Britain, what could be achieved by signing a union treaty on April 3, 1741.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Great Britain, foreign policy, A.I. Osterman, Catherine I, Peter II, Anna Ioannovna

Chertkov A.S. (Moscow). Controversial Issues of Studying the Process of Accession of the North-East of Asia to the Russian State in the 17th – the Middle of the 19th Centuries

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Advertising and Human Resources, Moscow Witte University,
115432, Russian Federation, Moscow, 2nd Kozhukhovsky Proezd, 12, p. 1,
E-mail: alexchertkov@list.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the historiographical material on the study of the history of the service population of Northeast Asia in the 17th – mid-19th centuries, their contribution to the discovery and economic development of vast hard-to-reach territories. A list of unexplored issues for understanding the role of the service class of the region is given: determining the place of the Cossacks in the system of the class-estate system of the feudal state, social differentiation, participation in the class struggle, issues of a privileged position and material security of the Cossack population, exaggeration of the facts of the use of military force by the Cossacks exploitation of the indigenous population, belittling the role of service people in the processes of economic development and cultural influence on local peoples. The author pays special attention to debatable points in the coverage by historians of the problems of joining the Lena Territory to the Russian state. The article raises terminological issues of designating the process of movement of Russian service people, which were used in various meanings: “conquest”, “colonization”, “attachment”, “inclusion”, “entry”, “voluntary entry” and others. The author emphasizes that the process of development of the northern territories by Russian service people in the 17th – 18th centuries. considered by Soviet historians from the standpoint of the party-class approach. In fundamental academic research, with rare exceptions, the events associated with the advancement of Russian servicemen deep into the territory of Eastern Siberia are usually interpreted as a process of joining the Russian state.
Keywords: annexation of the North-East of Asia, Russian state, voluntary entry, colonial policy, shert records, service people, Cossacks, yasak population

Salikh N.R. (Ufa). The role of Arabic print editions in the spread of renewal-reformist ideas among Muslims of the Western Urals and Southern Urals in the 80s of the XIX – early XX centuries

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Archaeology and Ethnology, Institute of History and Public Administration, Ufa University of Science and Technology.
450076, Russian Federation, Ufa, Gafuri 73.
e-mail: nadir_ufa@mail.ru

Abstract. The article is devoted to the identification of factors influencing the spiritual and intellectual transformation of a certain social stratum in the history of Russia. From this concept comes the goal of the research work, which is to identify the influence of Arabic print publications on the spread of renewal-reformist ideas among Muslims of the Western Urals and the Southern Urals in the 80s of the XIX – early XX centuries. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the primary formulation of the problem under study. The research in the field of development of renewal-reform ideas on the territory of the Western Urals and the Southern Urals is relevant from the position of solving a number of problems related to inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations within the country, national culture, as well as building an optimal religious policy of the state. In addition, the problem becomes relevant in connection with the active and positive activities in the field of education of representatives of the local Muslim spiritual elite in the late 80s of the XIX – early XX centuries, which could be a positive example for the present. In addition to special-historical methods (the principle of reliance on the source, comparative-historical, historical-typological), the research applied the phenomenological method aimed at the reconstruction of phenomena as products of individual and public consciousness in order to understand everyday life practices. The materials of this article were periodicals – newspapers “Terjiman” (Crimea), “Vakyt” (Orenburg), “Shura” (Orenburg), published in Arabic script in the period from the 80s of the XIX – early XX centuries.
Keywords: muslim publications, Arabic script, Muslims of the Western Urals and Southern Urals, reformism, Muslim intellectuals, transformation of consciousness, jadidism

Morev E.A. (St. Petersburg). St. Petersburg (Petrograd) telegraph agency at the beginning of the First World War

3rd year graduate student, Department of History of Russia from ancient times to the beginning of the 20th century, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya embankment, 7-9
e-mail: 97morev@mail.ru

Abstract. The article considers the activities of the state St. Petersburg (later Petrograd) telegraph agency in the first months of the First World War, from August to December 1914. Based on archival documents (letters from management, orders, certificates) from the fund of the St. Petersburg Telegraph Agency in the RSHA, as well as press materials, for the first time in historiography, the work of the agency in the specified time period was analyzed. In addition, important events in the agency’s history were noted. The article examines the adaptation of the St. Petersburg Telegraph Agency to the conditions of mobilization and censorship, as well as its relationship with government agencies. The agency’s relationship with military censorship authorities and conflicts between them were analyzed. The impact of the First World War on the fate of individual employees and correspondents of the agency was also studied, and measures to support employees in wartime were analyzed. It is noted that thanks to the actions of director O.I. Lamkert, the agency managed to stabilize its work at the beginning of the war, when it had to work with large flows of information. The merits of management in providing assistance and protection to employees are also noted.
Keywords: Petrograd Telegraph Agency, telegraph, information policy, information security, O.I. Lamkert, World War I

Savvinov P.O. (Yakutsk). Organization of simplified self-government in small towns of Yakutsk region during the First World War and the Revolution of 1917

Assistant scientist
Institute for Humanitarian Research and North Indigenous Peoples Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
1, Petrovsky St., Yakutsk, 677000, Russia,
e-mail: pavel_savvinov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article presents the first investigation of a simplified self-government in small towns in the Yakutsk region. The period under study covers the First World War and the Revolution of 1917. Attention is paid to the structure of simplified self-government bodies and the electoral process in small urban settlements of the Yakutsk region during the period. The analysis reveals that a simplified public administration structure was implemented in the district towns of Vilyuysk and Olekminsk, with this structure subsequently reorganized into town councils and town dumas after the revolution. The northern district towns of Verkhoyansk and Srednekolymsk were governed by meetings of townspeople. After the revolution, a simplified self-government structure was organized in Srednekolymsk, compared to Verkhoyansk, where the meetings of townspeople continued to function.
Keywords: simplified town self-government, district towns, small towns, meeting of authorized representatives, town headman (starosta), town meeting

Kostiaev E.V., Bystrova I.M., Kovaleva D.N. (Saratov). Features of the Mensheviks’ political activity in Ukraine in 1917–1922

Ph. D, associate Professor, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Professor of the Department of History and Political Science
77 Politechnicheskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410054
e-mail: edikost@bk.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, associate Professor of the Department of History and Political Science
77 Politechnicheskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410054
e-mail: bystrovau@yandex.ru

Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, associate Professor of the Department of History and Political Science
77 Politechnicheskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410054
e-mail: dasha1109@mail.ru

Abstract. The article provides a detailed analysis of the theoretical views and practical activities of representatives of the Menshevik part of the national social democracy in the territory of Ukraine during the Great Russian Revolution of 1917–1922. The political activity of the Mensheviks of the Ukraine proceeded in extremely difficult conditions, since they advocated reunification with Russia, for which the local Social Democrats were hated by both moderate and radical Ukrainian nationalists who seized power in Kiev back in 1917. The supporters of General A.I. Denikin, who had been in charge of the Mensheviks of Ukraine for some time, also had a negative attitude towards the Mensheviks of Ukraine, whom the Mensheviks considered representatives of the bourgeois-landowner counterrevolution. However, the greatest harm to the activities of the Mensheviks in Ukraine was caused by their former party members, the Bolsheviks, who, gradually seizing power in various regions of Ukraine, practiced exclusively arrests, loans, prisons and other repressions as part of the fight against the Mensheviks. This put an actual end to the active political activity of the Mensheviks in Ukraine by 1922.
Keywords: social democracy, Menshevism, Bolshevism, the Great Russian Revolution of 1917–1922, Civil War, political struggle, Denikin

Khandorin V.G. (Moscow), Shaburov A.S. (Kozelsk). Discussion features of interaction between the Russian Orthodox Church and the White movement in the East and South of Russia

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Technology and Management named K.G. Razumovsky (First Cossack University), Professor of the Department of History
115172, Moscow, Kotelnicheskaya emb., 33,
e-mail khandorin@mail.ru

independent researcher
249722, Kaluga reg., Kozelsk,
e-mail art321.shaburov@yandex.ru 

Abstract. The article is devoted to a review and analysis of some features of the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the White movement during the Civil War in Russia. This question is especially difficult due to the fact that in the church environment there is still no single assessment of the participation of the Church in the military-political civil struggle. The relevance of the topic lies in the ongoing public interest in the events of the Civil War in Russia, especially increased against the background of the centenary of the events. The authors aimed to highlight the main trends in the historiography of the issue, to identify both similarities and differences in the relationship between the Church and the White movement in various regions, which received insufficient attention, as well as controversial aspects of theological discussions regarding the actual participation of the clergy in the Civil War. At the same time, attention is paid to the ideological justification for the alliance of the White movement with the Church on the part of the leading ideologists of this movement, primarily representatives of the Cadet party. For comparison, two main and largest centers of the White movement were chosen: the east of Russia during the reign of A.V. Kolchak and the south of Russia under A.I. Denikin and his successor P.N. Wrangel.
Keywords: Civil war in Russia, Russian Orthodox Church, White movement, A.V. Kolchak, A.I. Denikin, P.N. Wrangel

Shaikhislamov R.B., Emelin S.M. (Ufa). Chronicle of friendship, mutual assistance and creation of the peoples of Bashkiria and Ukraine during the Great Patriotic War (based on the materials of the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan)

Dr. Hab. (History), Professor of Russian history, historiography and source studies of the Ufa University of Science and Technology; researcher at the R. G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Ufa University of Science and Technology.
450074, Russia, Ufa, Zaki Validi str., 32.
e-mail: shrb2007@mail.ru

PhD in History Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Doctor of Law, Professor, Full member of the Academy of Military Sciences of the Russian Federation, Director of the R. G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research
450077, Russia, Ufa, Karl Marx str., 6.
e-mail: emelin_sm@mail.ru

Abstract. Based on archival materials that have not been introduced into scientific circulation, the article reveals the processes of friendship, mutual assistance, cooperation and creation of the peoples of the country during the Great Patriotic War, which are of lasting importance. These problems are considered in the study through the prism of the restoration of activity in the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of defense factories, enterprises, cultural and scientific institutions evacuated from the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, social assistance to the evacuated population, selfless and selfless support by the working people of the republic for the restoration processes of the territories of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic liberated from the fascists in 1943–1945. Special attention is paid to the assistance of the workers of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to the Donbass liberated from the Nazi invaders; documents reflecting the supply of industrial equipment, machinery and building materials, livestock by Bashkiria workers, the supply of consumer goods, food, and the organization of social assistance to the population of the region cleared from the occupation of the territories of Ukraine. It is noted that during the harsh war years, the best qualities of our peoples manifested themselves – solidarity, cooperation, selfless mutual assistance, which became an important factor in victory. The research is based on the documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan, which contains an extensive complex of invaluable sources on the history of relations between the peoples of the republics during the Great Patriotic War (materials on the evacuation of enterprises, institutions of science, culture, and the population of Ukraine; commissioning of evacuated industrial enterprises of Ukraine on the territory of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; on cooperation between Ukrainian and Bashkir scientists, writers and cultural figures; assistance to the workers of Bashkiria to the liberated territories of Ukraine).
Keywords: War, Bashkiria, Ukraine, Donbass, friendship, mutual assistance, cooperation, restoration of the economy

Fedulov S.V., Soloviev D.N. (St. Petersburg). Activities of the Auxiliary Vessels and Harbors Division Red Banner Baltic Fleet in the conditions of the blockade of Leningrad

Dr. Sci. (Historical), Professor
of the Department of Military-Political Affairs in the Troops (Forces)
Mozhaisky Military Space Academy,
Corresponding member of AVN,
197198, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya street, 13,
e-mail: serg.val.fed.661000@yandex.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
senior lecturer at the department of military-political work in the troops (forces)
Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy,
192012, Russia, St. Petersburg, 2nd Rabfakovsky lane. 15-2-38
e-mail: botanik-s@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article, prepared for the 80th anniversary of the complete lifting of the blockade of Leningrad, is devoted to the activities of one of the important structures of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet (KBF) – the Department of Auxiliary Vessels and Harbors (OVSH). This structure of the People’s Commissariat of the Navy and all fleets, including the KBF, was created on the basis of instructions from the Chief of the Main Naval Staff in 1940. OVSG were subordinated to all transport, auxiliary vessels, floating docks. During the implementation of pre-war shipbuilding programs, insufficient attention was paid to the construction of military transport ships. Therefore, with the outbreak of hostilities, civilian transport ships were mobilized and included in the KBF under the leadership of the OVSG. During the blockade of Leningrad (1941–1944), these vessels carried out their activities in the waters of the Gulf of Finland, supplying and ensuring the defense and life of Kronstadt, the Oranienbaum bridgehead. In 1943–1944, auxiliary vessels of the OVSG KBF transported formations 2nd shock army to the Oranienbaum bridgehead to participate in the operation “January Thunder”, which made it possible to completely lift the blockade of Leningrad. The article shows the conditions under which auxiliary vessels had to perform combat missions and what sacrifices it cost.
Keywords: Blockade of Leningrad, Red Banner Baltic Fleet, Department of Auxiliary Vessels and Harbors, Gulf of Finland, transports, tugboats, barges

Piankevich V.L. (St. Petersburg). “Are you swollen?” – “I fixed the shoes.” Repair and manufacture of shoes in besieged Leningrad

Doctor of historical sciences,
professor at the St. Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg, Universitetskaia nab. 7–9;
leading researcher at the St. Petersburg Institute
of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences
197110, Russian Federation,
St. Petersburg, 7 Petrozavodskaya ul.
e-mail: v.pyankevich@spbu.ru.

Abstract. The article examines the issue of acute shortage of shoes in Leningrad during the siege. Before the war, it was very difficult for a poor city dweller to buy shoes, but in the surrounded city the situation became especially difficult. It talks about the difficulties in purchasing and repairing shoes that city residents faced in cold weather. Informal practices used by both shoemakers themselves and their clients are described. Shoe repairs had to be paid for in bread, other products or money at the market price of food. Attention is paid to the measures taken by the city leadership, industrial and commercial enterprises to solve the problem. Despite the measures taken to organize the production, repair, and purchase of used shoes, Leningraders were extremely lacking in them. The value of shoes was so great that they were exchanged for bread, and sometimes, like other leather products, they were used as a substitute for food. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of both the decisions of the authorities and the survival strategies of the blockade survivors.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, the siege of Leningrad, shortages, manufacturing, shoe repair

Kozlov N.D. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). The Great Plan of the transformation of nature – a project ahead of its time

Professor of the Department of Russian History, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin,
1960605, Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Peterburgskoye highway, 10/A
e-mail: koznik49@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article considers the forgotten plan for the creation of protective forest strips, irrigation systems, reservoirs, ponds, canals in order to restore the national economy as quickly as possible, combat droughts, dust storms and dry winds in the southern and steppe regions of the country, protect the environment, improve the culture of nature management and obtain sustainable harvests, independent of the weather, guaranteed providing the country with food, which was carried out in our country in the late 40s-early 50s of the twentieth century. The pan was based on the research of Russian and Soviet scientists on the use of the territory for arable land meadows and forests, improving tillage techniques to preserve moisture. Despite the incompleteness of implementation, the plan had a noticeable impact on the state of the environment and agricultures of the country.
Keywords: program, forest protection strips, reservoirs, canals, droughts, dry winds, dust storms, grass field system

Hieromonk Lavr (Arkhipov M.I.) (Moscow). Work of the authorized Council for the affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church in creating legal precautions for the closing of monasteries in the 1950s on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR

post-graduate Student of the Department of Church History, Faculty of
History Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27, bldg. 4
e-mail: maksim-arxipov@mail.ru

Abstract. The article describes the implementation of Khrushchev’s anti-church policy in the late 1950s – early 1960s in relation to the Russian Orthodox Church and ways of its implementation with the help of the institution of commissioners of the Council for the Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The authorized representatives, under the guise of legal actions, sought ways to deprive the monasteries of financial, economic and human resources. The commissioners monitored the economic and financial activities of the monasteries and contributed to the persecution of the clergy. Based on the material of archival documents, the methods of persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church, the closure of its monasteries and parishes in the Ukrainian SSR – in Transcarpathian, Cherkasy, Zhitomir and other regions are shown. The commissioners also carried out anti-religious propaganda, using agent provocateurs for these purposes. As a result of the activities of local authorities and the methods they developed to combat monasteries during this period, under various pretexts, a significant number of monasteries in the USSR and, in particular, in the Ukrainian SSR, including the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, were closed.
Keywords: commissioners, closure of monasteries, Ukrainian SSR, Khrushchev persecution, Church, anti-religious propaganda

Nikolaev D.A. (Yakutsk). Sea and river transport in the history of the Russian Ustye

Laboratory assistant at the
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous
Studies of the North, Siberian Branch of RAS.
677027, Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), Yakutsk, ul. Petrovskogo, 1
e-mail: Nikolaev.Dmitry1993@yandex.ru

Abstract. The article examines the formation and development of river and sea transport in the Russian Ustye during the Soviet period. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that for the first time archival materials on the history of its transport supply are introduced into scientific circulation. The article shows the key role of water transport in the socio-economic development of the Russian Ustye, thanks to which regular supplies of food and industrial goods were established. The beginning of the development of the Northern Sea Route in the 1930s created the necessary infrastructure that ensured the maritime transport supply of the Russian Estuary and for the organization of the first shipping company to Indigirki, which was called the Kolyma-Indigirsky. In a short time, a significant self-propelled fleet was created, which was previously absent on this northern river. As a result, regular delivery of goods to Russkoe Ustye and Indigirka was established. The growth in the volume of cargo deliveries had a beneficial effect on the standard of living of its population and the provision of all necessary goods. In general, during this period, a developed transport and logistics system was established, which solved the long-standing problem of supplying and delivering food to the population of Indigirka. Despite the changes in the way of life of the Russian Ustyin residents under the influence of transformational changes of the 20th century they were able to maintain their unique cultural characteristics in language, lifestyle and identity.
Keywords: Russian Ustye, captain, supply, sea transport, river transport, shipping, navigation

Sosnitsky D.A. (St. Petersburg). V.I. Lenin and I.V. Stalin in modern Russian cinema: experience in studying images

Ph.D. in History, senior lecturer
Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University
199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya emb., 7/9.
e-mail: d.sosnitskij@spbu.ru 

Abstract. Within the framework of this article, the features of the representation of the images of V.I. Lenin and I.V. Stalin in post-Soviet Russian cinema are analyzed. Based on the analysis of film and biofilmographic literature, a list of feature films and TV series shot between 1991 and 2023, in which the images of the first rulers of the USSR were recreated, was compiled. 31 film works were identified in which the image of V.I. Lenin and 59 films and TV series with I.V. Stalin were created. The main trends in the transformation of the images of Lenin and Stalin are identified, several periods are identified with their characteristic features of representation. The transition from portraying the first leaders of the Soviet state in a comic and parodic way (characteristic of Russian cinema in the 1990s) to a more serious and thoughtful assessment of their role in the history of Russia is demonstrated. The main features of foreign films in which the leaders of the USSR appear are also analyzed, and parallels between them and domestic films are drawn. The article draws conclusions about the place of V.I. Lenin and I.V. Stalin in the national cinema of the future on the basis of the studied material.
Keywords: historical memory, images of the past, V.I. Lenin, I.V. Stalin, cinema

Sannikova Ya.M. (Yakutsk). Problems of socio-economic development of the rural population of Yakutia in the first post-Soviet period: search for solutions in official appeals to the leadership of the regional Ministry of Agriculture

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Institute of Humanitarian Studies and Problems of Small Peoples of the North SB RAS, Senior Researcher, Center for Arctic Research,
677027, Russia, Yakutsk, st. Petrovsky, 1
e-mail: sannikowa@mail.ru

Abstract. The article examines local examples of official appeals to the republican and federal authorities of the relevant Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) with specific proposals for solving problems of socio-economic development of the rural population in the first half of 1997. An attempt has been made to justify the choice of this specific period of time in the first post-Soviet period in the development of agriculture, through the prism of which a specific search for solutions to the problems of the indigenous rural population is shown. The specific features of the life activity of the rural population of Yakutia, which is based on their traditional economic activities, are highlighted. In the post-Soviet period, representatives of the relevant ministry tried to consider and solve the socio-economic problems of rural residents and workers in the post-Soviet period as specific production tasks and issues of social support for agricultural workers. The author tried to show these local examples of appeals by highlighting the role of traditional management and at the same time taking into account the problems of agriculture in the republic as the basis for the economic life of the entire indigenous population of Yakutia, including its Arctic territories. The author emphasizes that attempts to integrate the efforts of republican organizations, appeals directly to the republican and federal authorities in general about the problems of the rural population were also a feature in the management activities of the relevant ministry of the region.
Keywords: rural population, the first post-Soviet period, Yakutia, the Arctic, agriculture, management of traditional economy

Sokirkin D.N. (St. Petersburg). Strategic planning as a component of public administration of the Russian Federation

Associate Professor of the Department of History and Philosophy of SPbGASU,
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU),
190005, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya street., 4, St. Petersburg
e-mail: sokirkin1976@mail.ru

Abstract The object of study within the framework of this theme is the characteristic features inherent in the modern stage of strategic planning in the field of public administration of the Russian Federation. The experience of strategic planning accumulated in the Soviet era, as well as in foreign countries, is considered. The influence exerted by the implementation of the strategic planning process on various spheres of public relations in modern Russia is analyzed. Participation in the development of principles and tools for modern strategic planning of scientific organizations is presented. The article analyzes new initiatives in the field of strategic planning and their impact on public administration practice. The levels and sectors of modern strategic planning in Russia are presented. The stages of the strategic planning process are sequentially traced with further disclosure of their content and purpose. Particular attention is paid to the legal regulation of the strategic planning process in the Russian Federation. Federal Law No. 172 “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation” is considered separately. The relevance of the presented research is due to the fact that the necessary high-quality level of strategic planning ensures the effective functioning of the public administration system. That is why issues of strategic planning are constantly in the focus of attention of the country’s leadership.
Keywords: Russian Federation, public administration, strategic planning, national security, socio-economic development.

Shevchenko M.M. (St. Petersburg). Topical issues of ensuring the practical orientation of the educational process in technical universities

Doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of philosophy and sociology of the Saint Petersburg state Maritime technical University.
190008, Saint Petersburg, Russia, Lotsmanskaya St., 3.
e-mail: mixail.shevchenko.44@mail.ru. 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the consideration of current issues of professional development of future specialists in Russian technical universities. Their relevance lies in the fact that during the entire period of study at the university, not only specialists are trained who meet the requirements of modern production or other spheres of activity, but, most importantly, citizens of Russia, patriots, honest, authoritative leaders who are able to work effectively in a team and skillfully interact with colleagues, subordinates and senior management. A very important element of training is considered – constant interaction with the future production activities of graduates, where their final professional development will take place. We emphasize that the fundamental basis for the formation of highly qualified specialists, in particular shipbuilders, is professional and worldview education. It can be characterized as follows. This is a process of purposeful and systematic influence on the consciousness of students, or the psychology of the study group, and the formation on this basis of a set of moral, professional and psychological qualities necessary for highly qualified specialists to successfully fulfill their professional duty. Let us note that effective creative activity and high professional and ideological personalities can be fully formed only with the organic combination of three main components: personal, functional and subject. At the same time, the personal side involves revealing the capabilities of the students themselves, employees, and specialists who have devoted themselves to mastering their chosen profession.
Keywords: practical orientation, professional development, professional and ideological education, respect for the profession, professional training of a sociologist – applied nature, sociology of industrial enterprises, modern specialist, educational process, limit of innovation, teachers of highly qualified universities

Kuptsova I.V., Sidorov A.V., Fomenko M.V. (Moscow). Historical memory of the wars of the XX century in the structure of State memory policy

PhD, professor,
Department of regional and municipal administration,
School of Public Administration,
Moscow State University (Lomonosov)
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
e-mail: Kupcova@spa.msu.ru 

PhD, professor,
Department of history of state and municipal administration,
School of Public Administration,
Moscow State University (Lomonosov)
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
e-mail: Sidorov@spa.msu.ru 

Ph.D., Associate Professor
Department of Strategic Communications
School of Public Administration,
Moscow State University (Lomonosov)
119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
e-mail: Fomenkomv@spa.msu.ru

Abstract. The article discusses the key strategies of perception and evaluation of the most important events of the national military history of the twentieth century in the context of the transformation of the structure and content of state historical policy. The state paradigm of the interpretation of the military-historical past of the country has repeatedly changed depending on the prevailing ideology and the dominant system of values, within which political, economic and social transformations were implemented. Using the example of the First World War, the Great Patriotic War and the period preceding it, the authors analyzed the mechanism of forming an assessment of an event and its subsequent consolidation in the state historical paradigm. Considerable attention is paid to the use of historical images of the country’s military past in the process of forming an all-Russian civil nation at the present stage of development of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that there is a variable set of strategies in the historical policy of the Russian authorities throughout the twentieth century. with the peculiarity that within each of the successive state paradigms, one pronounced strategy dominated. For the beginning of the twentieth century this is a strategy of “archaization” of modernity, consolidation of tradition in the present. For the 1920s – 1930s – a strategy of “active denial” of the past. The events of the Great Patriotic War were repeatedly subjected to a “smooth correction” in historical memory, depending on the political orientation. The Soviet-German non-aggression treaty of 1939 preceding the outbreak of this war during the years of “perestroika” was interpreted within the framework of the strategy of “revelation”, that is, “finding” and fixing the truth. In relation to the First World War, a strategy of “rediscovery”, a new fixation of cultural memory was applied.
Keywords: the history of Russia, the twentieth century, historical politics, the politics of memory, symbolic politics, the First World War, the Great Patriotic War, perestroika, the Soviet-German non-aggression treaty


Mankov S.A. (Pushkin, St. Petersburg). A.L. and G.A. Grekhnev: on the question of the authorship of works of architectural graphics and watercolors from the collection of the Tsarskoe Selo State Museum and Heritage Site 166

Ph.D. in history, honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts,
 Senior researcher of the Tsarskoye Selo State Museum and Heritage Site.
196601, Sadovaya st., 7, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
e-mail: mankov21@mail.ru

Abstract. Attribution of an object is one of the most important tasks in the work of any museum and museum-type institution. Correct attribution through a painstaking study of published and unpublished sources, comparative analysis, synthesis, definition and description of the essential features, properties and functions of objects leads to the disclosure of their “museum quality” – informativeness, attractiveness, expressiveness, representativeness, memoriality, etc. In the collections of the world’s largest and Russian museums there are a significant number of works of art and artifacts that need clarification and determination of the time and place of their creation, author, customer, owner, utilitarian use, plot, etc. The article is based on a study of the biographies of three generations of representatives of the Grekhnev family the authorship of two groups of works of architectural graphics (drawings, plans) and watercolor drawings stored in the funds of the Tsarskoye Selo State Museum and Heritage Site is established.
Keywords: Tsarskoye Selo, Catherine Palace, Amber Room, Tsarskoye Selo Palace Administration, topographers, shipbuilders, L.A. Nikiforova, Russian emigration, Academy of Arts, Higher Art School, museum attribution


Tsyb A.V. (St. Petersburg). Origenism at the Cambridge School 177

 CSc in Philosophy, Associate Professor at the Department of International Relations, Institute of Humanities,
Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University,
195251, Russia, St.Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy prospekt 28;
Leading Researcher at the Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences – a branch of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
190005, St. Petersburg, st. 7th Krasnoarmeyskaya, 25/14,
e-mail: alex.tsyb@gmail.com 

Abstract. The article deals with the phenomenon of Cambridge Origenism during the XVII century. The philosophical and religious thought of the late Hellenistic era represented by the Christian Origen had a strong influence on the philosophical concepts of the representatives of the Cambridge Platonist school. Origen’s ideas, which emerged during the so-called “troubled times” of intellectual ferment in the Empire during the age of the principate, became popular already within his lifetime, and afterwards sprouted a vast intellectual tradition of Origenism, influencing Medieval, Renaissance and modern intellectual environment as well. Intellectualism as the notion of a God’s hypostasis as the Intellect (Nous) was placed at the core of the thinker’s worldview. Over the centuries it has given quite rational impetus to both theological and secular philosophical teachings in the fields of cosmology, physics, anthropology, and practical philosophy. This influence was also evident in the development of the ethico-political idea of inner freedom. Even contemporary theologies [1, pp.191-200], which turn to Origen’s legacy as a source, have quite reasonably applied Origen’s ideas to support an anthropology compatible with modern values of human freedom and dignity, arguing against Augustinian views that people are essentially free and rejecting absolute predestination, defending individual freedom and choice. As a very interesting stage of this adaptation, entailing not only ethical but also political conclusions, we may consider the Origenists of the Cambridge Platonic School, whose activities unfolded in the midst of the Civil War.
Keywords: The Alexandrian School, Clement of Alexandria, Origen the Chris-tian, Cambridge Origenists, the idea of human freedom, denial of predestination


Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). At the origins of the Siberian version of the ethnogenesis of the Russian people. Doctor of Medicine, archaeologist Vasily Markovich Florinsky

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Ufa University of Science and Technology”
453100, Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, Lenin Avenue, 49
e-mail: gnera@mail.ru

Abstract. The article outlines the milestones of the biography and multifaceted scientific creativity of V.M. Florinsky, famous in the 19th century. Doctor of Medicine, gynecologist, founder of the Department of Childhood Diseases and Siberian University, memoirist, statesman, archaeologist-enthusiast, historian. The main attention is paid to the analysis of his historical views on the problem of the most ancient period in the history of the Slavs, Russians and his contribution to the development of Slavic archeology. His competence in the field of archaeological research in Western Siberia of the 19th century is indicated. and bold attempts to generalize and systematize the material of the Tomsk Museum of History, Archeology and Ethnography, which he founded, which still exists today. The main provisions of his analytical two-volume monograph “Primitive Slavs…” are examined, in which the author raises the question of the kinship of the Slavs and the legendary Aryans, who, in his opinion, came from the depths of Central Asia. The important position of this archaeologist-theorist about the real presence of the Proto-Slavs in Siberia, who left material traces of their cultural presence in burial mounds and burials older than the Scythian mounds of European Russia and the Black Sea region, stands out. The relevance ideas of V.M. Florinsky about the Slavic-Russian trace in the ancient history of Siberia in connection with the revival of the “Arctic” theory of the ethnogenesis of the white (Aryan) race at the beginning of the 21st century, new archaeological finds and artifacts described in the works of G.A. Sidorov, a prominent representative of modern intra-academic and extra-academic alternative historiography (AI). The article is presented under the updated methodological platform characteristic of AI, correlated with the principle of metahistoricism, the “extended” model of the chronology of world history and the cultural-historical (civilizational) approach of a spiritual order.
Keywords: V.M. Florinsky, Aryans, Tomsk University, primitive Slavs, G.A. Sidorov, archeology of Siberia, Siberian antiquities, Slavic-Aryan Vedas, Siberian Scythians, alternative historiography