Klio # 4 (148) 2019





Ippolitov G.M., Filatov T.V. (Samara). Teach-civilizational approach to cognition of history: symbiosis or acceptable research algorithm? Discussion of reasoning (article 1) …………………………… 13

GEORGY MIKHAILOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics, Professor of the Department of National History and Archaeology, Samara State Socio-Pedagogical University. 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L. Tolstoy St., 23. E-mail: gippolitov@rambler.ru

TIMUR VALENTINOVICH FILATOV — Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy, Volga State University of Telecommunications and Informatics. 443010, Russian Federation, Samara, L’va Tolstogo St., 23. E-mail: tfilatoff1960@mail.ru

If you say that the problems of formation and cultural approaches to cognition of history have a rich history, it is not the whole truth. The fact of the matter is that historiography, mentioned above, is situated in a broad discussion, and sometimes controversial, research field. A relatively large number of domestic research on formation and civilized approaches to cognition of history (especially Soviet and somewhat less in post-Soviet historiography), run in the format of “or-or”, and often in the format of “pro et contra”. The authors of the article attempted to research the answer to the complex issue of theoretical-methodological nature: teach-civilizational approach to cognition of history: symbiosis or acceptable research algorithm? We also looked a little further and trying to answer another thorny issue of theoretical-methodological nature: and what outside assessment-civilizational approach? When the researchers went from historiography tradition of Soviet and post-Soviet historiography considered two innovative theoretical and methodological approaches, described above in the format “or-or”, and, especially, in the format of “pro et contra”. In addition, the authors of this article propose to consider these approaches are not separately, namely as “teach-civilized”, which can be assumed to cause a lot of critical judgment. However, the proposed us assessment category-civilizational approach to cognition of history”, there is not mechanical, and dialectical connection. It is clear that our material is of an exclusively West discussion (but not a polemical) nature. We do not pretend saying uppercase truths which we know are true, but only up to the first bump. In the first article there is the necessary preliminary author’s comments, gives a brief description of the concepts of “scientific approach”, “formation (or monistic) approach to the cognition of history”, “civilization (or pluralistic) approach to the cognition of history.” These characteristics give us clear guidance in the search for answers to complex questions of theoretical methodological nature, mentioned above.

Keywords: scientific approach, formation (or monistic) approach to learning history, civilization (or pluralistic) approach to learning history, K. Marx, F. Engels, D. Bell, O. Spengler, Nikolai Danilevsky, A.J. Toynbee, socio-economic formation, revolution, class struggle, civilization, mentality, culture.




Shorokhov V.A., Slesarev T.A. (Saint Petersburg). Firman of the Shah Abbas I of Persia to the Voivode of Astrakhan from the RGADA fund ………………………………………………………………….. 28

VLADIMIR ANDREEVICH SHOROKHOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Regional Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: v.shorohov@spbu.ru

TIMUR ANISOVICH SLESAREV — Master of Oriental and African Studies, Chief Librarian of the East Department, Saint Petersburg State University Library of M. Gorky. 195426, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Peredovikov St., 1/6, 19. E-mail: timurslesarev@mail.ru

The authors release the source on the history of Russia-Iran relations in the early 17th century. It’s a firman of Abbas I in Turkic addressed to the Russian administrator of Astrakhan, dated by 1622. The document reflects some features of international relations of the first quarter of the 18th century, when the Safavid Empire was in the groove whereas in contrast Russia just began to overcome the consequences of the Time of Troubles. Source analysis of the act allowed the authors to determine the features of its structure and the translation made it possible to make a number of observations on the features of the Persian Turkic terminology of the time. The external trade functions of the “kerekyaraklar” were revealed and their identity with the word “cupchina” of the contemporary Russian materials was highlighted. New data was obtained on the biography of one of the Iranian diplomatic and trade agents in Russia – Aga Hasan. Finally, the authors conclude about the reasons for the direct appeal of the ruler of one country to the head of the regional administration of another, which is not typical for the considered epoch.

Keywords: Russia-Iran relations, Safavids, Abbas I of Persia, Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov, source release.


Karliavina A.I. (Moscow). Anti-religious cartoon in the Soviet periodical press of the 1920-ies (based on materials of the newspaper «Bezbozhnik») ……………………………………………………………… 34

ANNA IVANOVNA KARLIAVINA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history of the 20th–21st centuries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: effy754@gmail.com

In Soviet Russia the cartoon genre was widely used for different types of propaganda due to its comprehensibility and accessibility to illiterate masses. The artist, observing the events, subjects them to a kind of processing, portrays them in an accessible, emotionally saturated form. Anti-religious caricature was used by the Bolsheviks until the early 1920s. But the caricature (including against the church and its ministers) became an integral part of the Soviet press and one of the most popular genres of fine art, precisely in that period. The Bolsheviks widely used anti-religious cartoons for propaganda. The article deals with the Soviet anti-religious caricature in the newspaper “Bezbozhnik” (“Godless”) since the founding of the newspaper (December 1922) to 1930.

Keywords: anti-religious propaganda, anti-religious cartoons, Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), religion, propaganda, caricature, the newspaper “Bezbozhnik”.





Popov I.D. (Vologda). Regional policy of West and East Germany 1945–1990 in the post-Soviet historiography ………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

IVAN DMITRIEVICH POPOV — Ph.D. in History, Vologda State University. 160000, Russian Federation, Vologda, Lenina St., 15. E-mail: idpopov@gmail.com

The article analyzes the post-Soviet historiography of the regional policies of West and East Germany from the moment of allied occupation till the reunification of the country. It is concluded about a quite fragmentary interest in this topic, despite the fact that researchers often point out the significant influence of land elites on national processes and events. Many problems of the development of the German regions were raised in Soviet historiography and are revised at the present stage. Another feature is a well-marked shift of research to the period of the allied occupation, considering that the regional policy often does not appear as a separate subject of research and is studied in the framework of general democratization processes. Following is a discussion on the problems of the origin, essence, evolution and reasons for the stability of German federalism. The conclusion presents research gaps in the study of regional policy in the period of the German separation, the development of which will help to understand better the political situation in making certain decisions that were significant for both states.

Keywords: regional policy, lands of Germany, German federalism, West Germany, East Germany, allied occupation of Germany, Bavaria, West Berlin, FRG, GDR, historiography.





Boode M.A. (Saint Petersburg). Social and Economic Development of Florida during the Antebellum Era ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

MARK ANDRESOVICH BOODE — 2nd year student of Baccalaureate, Department of Medieval History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 192029, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Olgi Bergholz St., 17, 69. E-mail: mark.boode00@gmail.com

The article explores economic processes in Florida during several decades before the Civil War. The author attempts at analyzing algorithms of settlement and development of the peninsula territories. Florida was one of the youngest states of the Old South remotely located from other territories. At the same time, thanks to extreme fertility of its land and relatively small population, Florida has become the focus of attention from other states’ residents, suffering from the shortage of land that in most cases was less fertile. The article makes a conclusion that with traditional plantation households focused on cultivation of cotton and sugar, the economic development processes in the most arable area of Florida – the central part of the peninsula – were similar with those of other southern states. Lucrative harvests have attracted a lot of migrants who settled in Florida within a short period of time driving out Native Americans and less numerous Spaniards. Development of plantation households triggered development of the state’s infrastructure – railroad network and warehouses involved in the transportation of goods. Within less than half a century Florida transformed into one of the biggest slave centers of the USA – almost half of its population in 1860 was not free whereas slave-owners accounted for only one third of the total population. It is mostly due to this feature that Florida seceded from the USA in the beginning of the 1861 to support the Confederacy formed by southern states.

Keywords: American Civil War, Florida, cotton cultivation, the Old South, slavery, American frontier.


Oprea George (Alesd, Romania). From the rise of the Hungarian kingdom to its end ………………………………. 57

EMMANUEL-GEORGE OPREA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History and Politics, Moscow Pedagogical State University. 415100, Romania, Mun. Oradea, Region Bihor, city Alesd, Str. Ciocarliei, X3–4. E-mail: goprea78@yahoo.com

The article addresses to the problem of rule of the Hungarians in Transylvania and the main theses of the struggle of the Romanians for independence. The first part is written about the origins of rule of the Hungarians and how their management system was formed, which, since the emergence of the national idea and nationalism in the 19th century, showed the weakness of the Hapsburg dynasty and the rule of Austria-Hungary as a generally. Pointing to the complexity of the relationship between the Hungarians, who suffered by major defeats from the Ottomans, and only through an alliance with Austria, they were able to create a dualistic monarchy that could push the Ottoman Empire away from Transylvania. As the Hungarians believed, the problem was solved, and from 1867 it became possible to assimilate the territory where the Romanians live, destroying the autonomy of Transylvania and making one whole nation, which will be Hungarian. Here the main activity of the court of Budapest and their main task, which consisted in the Magyarization of the population, are revealed.

Keywords: Romania, Transylvania, Hungary, international relations, Ottoman Empire, nationalities, ethnic composition, the struggle for rights.





Perekrestova S.V. (Saint Petersburg). To the history of postal regalia in Russia at the 1860s–1870s………….. 61

SOFIA VLADIMIROVNA PEREKRESTOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History from Ancient Times to the 20th century, Institute of History of Saint Petersburg State University, Librarian, Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: perekrestova_sofya@mail.ru

The paper is devoted to the collisions on the issue of postal regalia in Russia during the period of Great reforms. To be precise, it concerns the problem of this sector of the state monopoly being loss-making and the measures which were taken to solve it in accordance to the improvement of financial situation in the country. The paper discusses in detail the steps to increase profitability of the post and decrease its expenses, such as discussions on the matter of free shipping of the official correspondence, efforts to reduce governmental financing of postal stations and reconsideration of the mechanism of postal financial accounting. It also analyses the way the existed situation influenced welfare pf the postal employees. The paper puts forward the hypothesis about unprofitability of post being “imaginary” at a certain stage. Special attention is payed to identifying the reasons for little success of all the measures taken during that period.

Keywords: post, postal service, postal and telegraph service, communications service, Main Administration of Posts, Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, postal regalia, postal monopoly, profit and loss estimate, budget, Great reforms.


Pashin V.P. (Kursk). Social apartheid of the Soviet state in the 1920s………………………………………………….. 69

VASILY PETROVICH PASHIN — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Kursk State University. 305000, Russian Federation, Kursk, Radishcheva St., 29. E-mail: pashinvp@mail.ru

On the basis of archival documents extracted from the funds of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, the policy of the Soviet state towards people of “non-proletarian origin” is examined. It is proved that such a policy was not an accidental phenomenon. It was based on the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of classes and class struggle, the first constitutions of the RSFSR and the USSR. The process of increasing the scale of destruction of “socially alien elements” from spontaneous and scattered events (the beginning of the 1920s) to the general state policy (the end of the 1920s) is shown. Aimed attempts by the supreme bodies of the state and party, their leaders at the legislative level to conceal socially discriminatory policies with regard to a part of their own population. Conducting such a policy is confirmed by concrete figures and facts. A general conclusion is made that the selection of personnel for political reasons, and even more so of social origin and status for technical, managerial and economic posts, is not acceptable.

Keywords: Social apartheid, Bolshevik Party, specialist, personnel policy, purge.


Logvenkov I.S. (Moscow). Inter-republican project for the transformation of the management system of the union economy: development and implementation (1990–1991) ……………………………………….. 75

ILIYA SERGEEVICH LOGVENKOV — Postgraduate student, Department of State and Municipal Government, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119992, Russian Federation, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27/4. E-mail: ilya.logvenkov@gmail.com

The article studies the process of developing and implementing the final draft of the government, which was to replace the USSR Cabinet of Ministers in the context of the confederative transformation of the state structure of the country. Based on a research of republican sources, the origins of the idea of republican economic accounting, which formed the basis of the sovereignization that developed later, are traced. It is shown that the Inter-republican Economic Committee, originally conceived as an advisory body, in September 1991 acquired many features of a full-fledged coordinating, executive and administrative body, which was to play a significant role in the management of the union economy. During the development of the IEC project within the framework of the USSR State Council, the inter-republic agreement on the creation of the Economic Community became the legal basis for the functioning of this body instead of the USSR Constitution. Based on an analysis of the structure and characteristics of the functioning of the IEC, it was concluded that this governing body could have a positive impact on the preservation of inter-republican economic relations during the course of market reforms.

Keywords: USSR, RSFSR, government, union economy, Inter-republican economic committee, Interstate Economic Committee, Economic community, economic crisis, union treaty, economic accounting.





Semenov O.V. (Yekaterinburg). The fate of «profitable» events of the governor Yu.Ya. Suleshev at the yam courier service in Siberia in the 17th century …………………………………………………………… 84

OLEG VLADIMIROVICH SEMENOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. 620000, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Lenin Ave., 51. E-mail: helg2008@list.ru

The article analyzes the activities of the Tobolsk voevoda Yu.Ya. Suleshev in the yam courier service in Siberia. It shows a gradual change in attitudes towards them from the central authorities. Initially, the activities of the bit administration were approved by Moscow, since they led to a reduction in costs and an increase in tax revenues. However, it soon came to the realization that these measures worsened the quality of state communications and weakened Russian positions in Siberia. Since the late 1620s began their revision, stretching over several decades. The Tyumen yam was revived, the yam arable lands were returned to their original size, and the dispersal of the Verkhotursk coachmen (yamshchiks) was reduced. However, due to saving money, some of the events were not canceled. This undermined the position of siberian coachmen (yamshchiks) and restrained the process of developing the region.

Keywords: yam courier service, yamshchik, Yu.Ya. Suleshev, voivode, Siberia, Verkhoturye, Turinsk, Tyumen.


Krasnokutskaya L.I., Krasnokutskiy V.S. (Zheleznovodsk). State policy of Russia in the management of resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters: its nature and features in the 70’s-early 80’s of the XIX century ……………………………………………………………………………….. 93

LYDIA IVANOVNA KRASNOKUTSKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Historical and Philological Disciplines, Branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk. 357430, Russian Federation, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo. E-mail: karrass55@mail.ru

VLADIMIR SERGEEVICH KRASNOKUTSKIY — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Historical and Philological Disciplines, Branch of Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Zheleznovodsk. 357430, Russian Federation, Zheleznovodsk, Inozemtsevo. E-mail: kurasnokutsky.v@mail.ru

The study is devoted to the actual problem of the 1870s – early 1880s, the period of reforms of Alexander II, concerning such a specific branch of medicine as the resort. It analyses the development of the management structure in the period of the second counterparty in the Caucasian Mineral Waters. The complex interaction of several branches of the Russian government: the vicegerency of the Caucasian, Terek regional administration with the counterparty of the Caucasian Mineral Waters is considered. The study period is systematized for the first time (1870–1883), opened a unique area not only for Russia but also for Europe, determined for decades, the organization projects of the Waters with participation of the best engineers of Europe, showed the capabilities of a private entrepreneur in managing state-owned resorts. Two periods in activity of A.M. Baikov’s counteragency: democratic in the first five years and the beginning of strengthening of a power vertical in the next seven years are allocated.

Keywords: Caucasian Mineral Waters, North Caucasus, counterparty, resort, Governor, head of the region, course, holiday season, mineral springs, resort inspector, Supervisory Commission.





Khasanov Azat (Saint Petersburg), Fedoritenko Y.A. (Salekhard). The Good Offices of Austria and the Arab-Israeli conflict (1967–1983) …………………………………………………………………… 102

AZAT KHASANOV — Postgraduate student, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolny St., 1/3. E-mail: st027367@student.spbu.ru

YULIYA ALEXANDROVNA FEDORITENKO — Researcher, Modern and Contemporary History Department, State Budgetary institution “Yamal-Nenets regional Museum and exhibition complex named after I. S. Shemanovsky”. 629007, Russian Federation, Salekhard, Chubynina St., 38. E-mail: y.fedoritenko@mail.ru

The article explores the role of the Good offices provided by the Austrian Republic in the resolving Middle East conflict. Issues considered included timelines from 1967 to 1983. 1967 – Six-Day War, after which Socialistic states of Eastern Europe was able to place trust and authority in the Austria with regard to its own interests in Israel. 1983 – the end of rule of Bruno Kreisky, the Austrian Federal Chancellor in 1970-1983, his work has been an immense contribution to the cause of reconciliation between Israelis and Arabs. The present article is first attempt in Russian historiography to examine the protecting power mandates of Austria in the light of the Arab -Israeli conflict.

Keywords: Good offices, protecting power mandates, Austria, Israel, the Middle East, PLO, Bruno Kreisky, Golda Meir, Yasser Arafat.


Li Yilin (Dalian, People’s Republic of China). New capabilities for the peaceful settlement of the situation in the Korean Peninsula: view from China ………………………………………………………… 110

LI YILIN — 3rd year postgraduate student, Teaching and Research Section of American Studies, School of International Relations, Saint Petersburg State University. 199397, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Korablestroitelei St., 29, building 4, room 413. People’s Republic of China, Liaoning province, Dalian, Lianshan St., 32. Е-mail: liyilin0511@gmail.com

The article focuses on the last possibility of a peaceful resolution of Korean Peninsula issue. The confrontation between North and South Korea is one of the main threats to international security. By sorting out the achievements of the previous Inter-Korean summits, observing major events including successes and fails in the process of denuclearization and achieving peace on the Korean Penisula, the author, according to the views of Chinese experts, interprets the interests game of the great powers on the present peninsula and objectively analyzes the situation on the peninsula, trying to find a peaceful way to resolve the problem in condition of the new opportunities.

Keywords: Inter-Korean summits, Denuclearization of the peninsula, First army policy, DPRK’s nuclear test, North-South relations on the peninsula, six-party talks, Korean reunification, international sanction, US-DPRK summit.





Travkin S.N. (Saint Petersburg). History of formation and study of the treasure from the village of Nerushay ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 118

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH TRAVKIN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: trawkin09@yandex.ru

There was the coin treasure what was found in 1898 near the village of Nerushay of the Izmail district of Bessarabia province of the Russian Empire. Coins from the treasure were determined by Alexey Markov who was the employee of the Imperial Hermitage. Archival materials describe the treasure are stored in the archive of the Institute of history of material culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg). Coins from the treasure were transferred to Odessa. The finder was paid a fee. The history of the treasure discovery testifies to the effective mechanism of collecting archaeological information in the Russian Empire. In 1990 A.A. Nudelman has published a summary of the hoard from the village Nerushai. Archival studies allowed to make new observations in the history of the formation and study of the treasure. There were silver and copper coins of the 18th century in the treasure. The treasure contains coins of the Ottoman Empire, the city of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and the Russian Empire. The composition of the treasure testifies to the difficult political and economic situation in the South of Bessarabia in the 18th century. The Moldavian Principality remained a vassal of Turkey. South Bessarabia was part of Turkey. However, the weakening of the Ottoman Empire was led to the spread of foreign coins. Russia’s war against Turkey was led to the appearance of coins for Moldova and Wallachia. The composition of the hoard is evidence of that.

Keywords: Bessarabia, the war, the Danube, the treasure of the Moldavian Principality, the coin, the Ottoman Empire, Ragusa, Russian Empire.





Solomakha E.N., Serafimov M.M. (Nizhny Novgorod). Study of the formation and development of the gymnasium in the I quarter of the 19th century ……………………………………………………….. 124

ELENA NIKOLAEVNA SOLOMAKHA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Balahninskу Branch of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603098, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: elenasolomakha@yandex.ru

MIKHAIL MIKHAYLOVICH SERAFIMOV — Ph.D. in Sociology, Associate of Professor of the Department of Dzerzhinsky Branch of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603098, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Prospekt Gagarina, 23. E-mail: m.serafimov@yandex.ru

The study of historical experience will help to predict the development of modern secondary school. The aim of the work is to study the goals, content and methods of teaching in the gymnasium, and the factors affecting its development. The subject of the study is the analysis of factors affecting the change in goals, content and methods. At the beginning of the 19th century, along with management reforms, the reform of education was adopted, it was based on the principles of continuity, wordlessness, free training. A new system of education is being formed to ensure the continuity of all types of educational institutions. Setting a new goal required a new approach to the selection of the content of education. Scholarly substantiated the need for its encyclopedic-rationalistic character. The contradiction between the liberal direction of reform and conservative traditions in education did not allow to prove the need for an alternative to the dogmatic method. In 1811 Uvarov’s reform changed the purpose of the gymnasium-only preparation for University. The realization of this goal has led to a change in the content of education. In secondary school retained the dogmatic type of teaching. Under the influence of the political factor in 1828 the government is once again reforming the gymnasium, seeking to develop a “uniform” school policy aimed at strengthening social stability, characterized by strict control over the gymnasium, changing the structure of management, the class of education. The purpose of the gymnasium according to the Charter of 1828 was a preparation for University and education of children of the upper class.

Keywords: goals, methods and content of gymnasium education, the first quarter of the 19th century, political factor, dogmatic type, reforms, continuity, level of education, class, elite, managers.


Rychkova M.V. (Orekhovo-Zuevo, Moscow Region). International cooperation in higher education during 1980s (by the example of Lomonosov Moscow State University) ……………………………………… 130

MARIIA VALERIEVNA RYCHKOVA — Applicant, Department of the Public Administration History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 142600, Russian Federation, Moscow Region, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Madonskaya St., 12–26. E-mail: evrychkova@rambler.ru

This article describes international relationships of Lomonosov Moscow State University. It implemented integration ideas in education systems long before the Bologna Process has been established. The article describes in detail the process of developing relationships between various universities in periods before and after restructuring. It also highlights defining characteristics of work management with students of foreign countries, work principles in education, as well as science relationship specifics. It analyzes relationships between universities from different countries and distills them into two different periods with 1985 separating them. In the first period relationships between soviet scientists and those from capitalist countries were irregular and complicated by interference of both sides’ political interests. The second one is known for more frequent contacts with universities from capitalist countries.

Keywords: International cooperation in higher education, restructuring, policy of new thinking, students of foreign countries, Bologna process.





Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). Military action in the Ardennes: 75 years of the alliance ……………………………….. 138

VLADIMIR ANTONOVICH ZOLOTAREV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Doctor of Law, Professor, Chief Researcher, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Science. 107564, Russian Federation, Moscow, Myasnikovskaya 1st Street, 3/3.

The article assesses the military-political situation that developed during the final stage of the Second World War. Attention was drawn to the fact that at the end of 1944 A. Hitler was counting on the success of the Wehrmacht counter-offensive against the combined forces of the anti-Hitler coalition. He relied on the fact that the difference in the goals of the Allies would lead to discord in their ranks. It describes the course of the battle and a number of combat episodes. It is emphasized that the actions of the Allies played an important role in the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Keywords: Ardennes, 1944, World War II, “Siegfried Line”, “Guard on the Rhine”, “Battle for the Bulge”, “Battle of the Ardennes”.





Fedechkin A.D. (Moscow). Baltic shipyard in terms of creating domestic ocean armored cruisers in the 1870s–1890s ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148

ALEXEY DMITRIEVICH FEDECHKIN — Applicant for degree of Ph.D. in History, Saint Petersburg State Marine Technical University. 105464, Russian Federation, Moscow, 16th Parkovaya St., 10, apt. 129. E-mail: rurik63@yandex.ru

The article deals with the problems of creating ocean going armored cruisers at one of the largest domestic shipbuilding enterprises – the Baltic Plant. By the beginning of the 1870s, the development in the Russian fleet of a constructive type of warships with an armor belt at the waterline intended for operations against Britain’s maritime trade and considered an effective means of “strategic deterrence” of a potential enemy, put forward the task of organizing their serial construction to the Marine Ministry. The inability to perform the full scope of work by the forces of state shipyards forced to attract for these purposes private enterprises of the relevant profile. These included the capital Baltic Foundry, Mechanical and Shipbuilding Plant, founded in May 1856 by the British M.E. Carr and M. MacPherson. Thanks to good equipment and a good location at the mouth of the Neva river, the company had a sufficient production base for the construction of large naval combat units, including the manufacture of their main and auxiliary mechanisms. As a result, during the last quarter of the 19th century the plant was built eight out of ten included in the Russian Navy ocean armored “fighters trade”, which had high for its time tactical and technical characteristics and very high-tech facilities.

Keywords: Russian Navy, ocean going armored cruisers, main and auxiliary machinery, semi-armored frigates of the type “Minin”, the Baltic Plant, the cruiser of the 1st rank “Rurik”.


Kislitsyn A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Modernization of turret mounts of 12 inch cannons of the Russian fleet battleships in the late XIX – early XX century ……………………………………………. 154

ALEXANDER VLADIMIROVICH KISLITSYN — Postgraduate student, Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences Russia, Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodskaya Street, 7. E-mail: aleks.k.44-40@yandex.ru

The article deals with the process of modernization of tower installations for heavy guns of the Russian Imperial Navy battleships in the late 19 – early 20 century. In connection with the active development of naval artillery in the advanced world powers, which began in the late 1880s, the Russian naval ministry realized the serious threat of the Russian fleet lagging behind in armaments and the need to take measures to eliminate it as soon as possible. On the basis of new archival sources, the joint actions of several units of the Ministry of the Navy of the Russian Empire and the largest Russian industrial enterprises to rearmament the fleet are analyzed and the problems encountered when creating a new high-caliber gun system are shown. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite the significant successes of the Russian naval department and the domestic industry in equipping battleships with weapons meeting world standards, the rearmament process in the period under review was limited. The naval ministry attached paramount importance to the implementation of the 20-year shipbuilding program of 1881, and the rearmament of the naval heavy artillery was reduced to speedy equipping of ships under construction with new systems. The most negative impact on the rearmament of the Russian fleet was exerted by the outdated management system of the Naval Ministry, whose activities reflected the shortcomings of the state system as a whole.

Keywords: the Russian Imperial Navy history, naval artillery, gun turrets, weapon modernization, the Ministry of Navy of the Russian Empire, the Naval Technical Committee, the General Directorate of Shipbuilding and Supplies, military production.





Yegorov A.N. (Cherepovets), Mikhaylov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). «Irresponsible opposition»: the image of a member of the cadet party in the environment of Octobrists ………………………………………….. 165

ANDREY NIKOLAEVICH YEGOROV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History and Philosophy, Cherepovets State University. 162605, Russian Federation, Vologda Oblast, Cherepovets, Lunacharsky Ave., 5. E-mail: anegorov65@mail.ru

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAYLOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 196135, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Gastello St., 15. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The article analyzes the image of a member of the constitutional democratic party formed among the Octobrists on the basis of narrative sources. The materials used Octobrists’ newspapers, party documents, essays and memoirs. It is shown that the cadets were perceived as detached from the life of the doctrines who failed to understand the essence of the phenomena due to blind adherence to abstract western ideas. Cadet policy was regarded as destructive, aimed at undermining the monarchy in alliance with the revolutionary forces. Octobrists accused cadets of false patriotism, excessive self-interest, in the pursuit of national division of Russia. There are similarities and differences of this image with the views prevailing in the right-monarchic circles of the Russian Empire. The conclusion is made about the formation of the image of the cadet among the Octobrists as an “irresponsible oppositionist”, which prevented the establishment of a dialogue between the government and society and exacerbated the political confrontation in the country.

Keywords: the Octobrists, the cadets, the conservatives, political image, the press, the State Duma.


Kostjaev E.V. (Saratov). Anti-Bolshevik activities and journalism of Menshevik Vladimir Levitsky in 1918–1920 ………………………………………………………………………. 173

EDUARD VALENTINOVITCH KOSTJAEV — Doctor of History, Professor, Department of Fatherland History and Culture, Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov. 410054, Russian Federation, Saratov, Politechnicheskaya str., 77. E-mail: edikost@bk.ru

In this article was researched the question that the Civil war that began after the October coup of 1917 in Soviet Russia was not only in the trenches on the front line, but also actively conducted on the information front. Representatives of anti-Bolshevik opposition political parties and organizations that did not agree to recognize both the established repressive regime in General and the conditions of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty concluded in March 1918 with Germany and its allies in particular took an active part in it. One of the most active and prolific critics of the Bolshevik dictatorship was in 1918–1920 a well-known politician and publicist, the Menshevik-”defensist” Vladimir Osipovitch Levitsky. Both in his journal articles and in his practical work, he preferred the toughest methods of counteracting the Bolsheviks, not excluding armed struggle to overthrow their power.

Keywords: October coup, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, revolution, Civil war, opposition activity, Brest peace, dictatorship, Levitsky.





Grinёv A.V. (Saint Petersburg). VIII International scientific symposium of americanists  «Merging the two worlds: the history, mobility, status of inhabitatnts of the New World before and after Columbus» ……………………………………………………………………… 180

ANDREI VAL’TEROVICH GRINЁV — Doctor in Historical Sciences and Professor of the Humanities Institute at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The essay informs about the Eighth Anthropologists Symposium held in December 2018 in St. Petersburg, during which many reports were made concerning indigenous and mixed peoples of the North, Central and South America. The attention was paid to such broad problems as the tradition culture of American Indians, its dynamic, emergence of racially mixed groups, the formation of new social movements in the context of the “eco-territorial shift” in Latin America and other problems, although most of the reports were devoted to specific themes on the history, linguistics, and culture of the indigenous population of the Americas.

Keywords: American studies in Russia, scientific symposiums, history, linguistics, and culture of the Native Americans.





Bulanov L.A. (Saint Petersburg). Medicine of the Ancient World: an excursus into history ………………………. 184

BULANOV LEONID ALEXEEVICH — Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of natural Sciences, Academician of the European Academy of natural Sciences, Chairman of the Cyprus branch of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine society, Advisor to the Chairman of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian society Sergey Stepashin. 195220, Russia, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Pr., 11, office 913. E-mail: osteopat-24@yandex.ru

The article analyzes the healing traditions that have arisen thousands of years ago among various nations of the world, both in the Middle East and in the Far East, as well as in America and in Europe. The author writes that the ancient healers were not only skilled chiropractors, knew the secret of the healing properties of various plants, but also owned numerous other methods of healing, among which, for example, was color therapy. The author draws attention to the fact that at different times different peoples used theories in the treatment of patients based on a philosophical understanding of the process of healing the body. Some healers believed that it was necessary to treat not the specific disease, but the person as a whole. Others were convinced that the basis of all diseases is diseases of the spine. Attention is also paid to the achievements of modern medicine.

Keywords: medicine of the ancient world, manual therapy, history of homeopathy, Hippocrates of Kos, Claudius Galen.





Zotova A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Professor Isaac Lvovich Geichman (to the 80th anniversary of the birth) …… 192

ANASTASIYA VALERYEVNA ZOTOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor of the Department of International Relations in the Post-Soviet Area, Saint-Petersburg State University. 199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7-9. E-mail: anastasiyazotova@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the prominent scientist I.L. Geikhman, who for many decades makes a significant contribution to the development of science. His achievements are known not only in Russia, but also abroad, including in the USA, Canada, Australia and Italy. As vice-president of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, I.L. Geihman contributes to the development of social and humanitarian sciences.

Keywords: I.L. Geikhman, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, National Research Center for Mining Production named after A.A. Skochinsky, International Academy of Natural and Social Sciences, Maltese Scientific Society.