Klio # 6 (126) 2017





Bitelev I.A. (Moscow). The Russo-German customs war of 1893–1894 through the eyes of the newspapers «Moskovskiye Vedomosti» and «Russkie Vedomosti»………………………………………………13

IVAN ALEXANDROVICH BITELEV — Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History of the XIX — early XX centuries, Faculty of History, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov. 119234, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninsky gory, 1, building B, room B-913. E-mail: ivanbitel@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the reflection of the customs war between Russia and Germany in 1893–1894 in the most significant periodicals in Russia. The object of the study is the Russian newspaper Moskovskiye Vedomosti and Russkie Vedomosti. The subject of the study is the reaction of these periodicals to the Russian-German trade conflict of 1893–1894. The relevance of the appeal to this problem is explained by the demand for studying the prehistory of the First World War, caused in large part by trade and economic rivalry and nationalism, in the formation of which the press played a big role.

The article reveals the following by these newspapers of their ideological orientation in understanding the course and results of the customs conflict. Both medias, in general, supported the policy of the Russian government, but disagreed on the issue of protectionism.

Keywords: Moskovskie vedomosti, Russkie Vedomosti, press history, economic relations, customs war.





Dmitrina S.G. (Chelyabinsk region, Kyshtym). The interpretation in the early Soviet historiography of the election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov on the kingdom…………………………………………………………18

SVETLANA GENNADIEVNA DMITRINA — Postgraduate student of the Department of National History and Law of the Faculty of History of the South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Teacher of the Kyshtym secondary school № 13. 456870, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk region, Kyshtym, Kaolinovaya str., 17–10. E-mail: svetlana.dmitrina@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the problem of illumination the process of electing Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov on a kingdom in the early Soviet historiography. The author analyzes various conceptual approaches to this problem, highlighting their theoretical determinism by the features of the epoch. The article reveals the transformation of the views of historians in the context of socio-political processes in the period of the formation of Soviet statehood. The author concludes that the early Soviet historiography of the problem has been sufficiently ideologized. The author proves that for innovative, modern historiographic approaches, it is necessary to distinguish the context of the researcher and the context of the research, which will allow us to reach a new level of theoretical and methodological comprehension of the issue.

Keywords: historiography, Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, election to the kingdom, traditional society, communicative theory of the historical process.





Kochegarov S.A. (Arkhangelsk). The political struggle in Estonia in February-October 1917…………………………23

SERGEI ANATOLYEVICH KOCHEGAROV — Rector of Northern enterprise Institute. 163000, Russian federation, Arkhangelsk Suvorov str., 2. E-mail: kochegarovsergey@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to poorly studied issues of the events after the February of the democratic revolution in the province of Estonia. Shows the impact of the First World War and the revolution the Russian army on the political situation in Estonia, studied the emergence of the Estonian nationalist political parties democratic and socialist direction, the attempts of the Bolshevik party to power in the Estonian Advice. Political parties operating in the province of Estonia before 1917, in the period after the revolution greatly increased the numbers and influence in society. In the first period (March-April 1917) the political leadership was captured by nationalist party-Estonian national progress party and the Union of Estonian farmers, it soon merged into the Estonian democratic party. At the same time was the creation of Councils in the cities, enterprises, soldiers ‘ units and ships of the fleet United in the Executive Committee of the Soviets of Estonia. That is the soldiers ‘and sailors’ Councils played in Estonia a decisive role in the increasing influence of the Bolsheviks. The bourgeois democratic political forces in Estonia failed to rally the society, and the military created the national side were not the force support of political forces loyal to the Interim government. The German offensive in summer-autumn 1917, which was captured by Estonian Moonsund Islands and became a real threat to the German occupation of the Baltic States, contributed to the anti-government propaganda and growing influence are concentrated in Estonia Bolsheviks military and naval parts. As a result, the Tips of the largest industrial cities in Estonia seized power on 23 October 1917, even before the start of the uprising in Petrograd.

Keywords: Estonia in 1917, The February Revolution, Estland province, J. Poska, J. Anvelt.


Portsel A.K. (Murmansk). Norwegian mines in Svalbard……………………………………………………………………31

ALEXANDR KONSTANTINOVICH PORTSEL — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Law, Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems. 183010, Russian Federation, Murmansk, ul. Sportivnaya, 13. E-mail: portsel@inbox.ru

The paper briefly describes the history of the formation and the development of the Norwegian coal companies on Spitsbergen.

The Norwegians were the first to start coal mining on the archipelago. But without state support the Norwegian «pioneers of coal mining» were unable to compete with foreigners.

Before and during the World War I, the Norwegian government began to provide financial support to companies seeking to mine coal on Spitsbergen. This was done for political reasons.

This support continued after the war. Thanks to it Norwegian companies were able to survive during the interwar period. Their activities helped to strengthen Norwegian presence on the archipelago, which in 1920 came under the sovereignty of Norway.

After the World War II the Norwegian government continued to support the two remaining Norwegian companies and then transferred them to state ownership. Until the end of the 20th century coal mining was the main form of Norwegian economic activity on Svalbard.

Keywords: Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Norwegian coal mines, «Store Norske», «Kings Bay».





Abukov S.N. (Donetsk). The Rurik dynasty of the XIV century in the Synodic of the Dormition Moscow Cathedral: an attempt at identification………………………………………………………………………………………39

SERGEY NAVIL’EVICH ABUKOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Lecture of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies, Archaeology and Methods Teaching History, Donetsk National University. 83015, Donetsk, Universitetskaya st, 24, II building, room № 21. E-mail: legusha@list.ru

The synodic of the Dormition Moscow Cathedral is one of the valuable and challenging source to explore the Medieval Rus. Special significance it has for the study of the genealogy of the ruling elite. The author of the article examines the list of the princes of the Rurik dynasty of the 14th century, mentioned in the memorial with a view to comparing them with chronicles and pedigrees. The article focuses on those princes who meet only in synodic and are not known or poorly known by other sources. An attempt is made to identify them with the inclusion of the genealogical schema, made several assumptions about the origin and kinship mentioned in this historical monument.

Keywords: Synodic, Dormition Moscow Cathedral, Prince, origin of the Rurik dynasty, 14th century, genealogy, pedigree.





Sharaevskaya A.V. (Ivanovo region, Komsomolsk). Cinefication of the Ivanovo industrial region in 1934–1936………45

ALENA VLADIMIROVNA SHARAEVSKAYA — Postgraduate Student, Department of Modern Russian History, Faculty of History, Ivanovo State University. Teacher of the Ivanovo Power Engineering College. 155150, Russian Federation, Ivanovo region, Komsomolsk, Soviet str., 6. E-mail: askaraevskaya@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the process of cinefication in the Ivanovo industrial region in 1934–1936, namely the building new cinemas, renovation and rebuilding of existing ones. During the analysis of the condition of the material-technical base the main problems were revealed and different ways of a solution by the Central and local authorities were studied. Because of the new sound era, much attention is given to the process of sounding of the existing cinemas. Some data from the archives of the Ivanovo region, as well as statistical material, are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. On the basis of the analysis of the cinema development in this region, it became possible to identify the disadvantages and achievements in the work of local authorities.

Keywords: Ivanovo industrial region, cinefication, sounding, cinema, film recursor, exploitation cinema, material-technical base, 1934–1936, city film network, rural network, Ivoblkinotrest.


Lyapin D. A. (Nizhny Novgorod). The daily life of the labor collective of the Soviet enterprise and its reflection in the party documents of 1939-1940. (On the materials of the Design Department of the plant «Krasnoe Sormovo»)………51

DMITRY ALEKSANDROVICH LYAPIN — Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History and Politics, Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky. 603950, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin ave., 23. E-mail: dmitrij.liapin@yandex.ru

The article deals with the most characteristic aspects of the life of the work collective of the Soviet enterprise in the prewar years 1939–1940, reflected in the documents of the party bureau and party assemblies of the Design Department of the Krasnoye Sormovo plant.

In the prewar period, the production plan for shipyard enterprises increased. This entailed increasing the burden on the entire workforce, under the circumstances, the company’s management is moving to a new principle of managing the collective of workers. The personal growth of workers with their preservation at the plant and the solution of their social and economic problems is at the forefront.

Improvement of workers’ skills, delineation of responsibility within the collective of workers, revision of individual production standards, provision of career growth, provision with housing — all these measures allowed the enterprise to increase labor productivity.

Keywords: plant, personnel, collective, party, problems, life, production, shipbuilding.


Krasnov A.A. (Nizhny Novgorod). Postwar life of aircraft manufacturers in the Nizhny Novgorod region (Second half of the 1940s)………………………………………………………………………………………………55

ANTON ALEXANDROVICH KRASNOV — Postgraduate student, Teacher, secondary school. 603138, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, ul. Politboytzov, 19–107. E-mail: oficier13@mail.ru

In the article, based on archival documents, newspaper articles and other publications, an attempt was made to examine the life peculiarities of aviation plant employees of the Gorky region in the period after the end of the Great Patriotic War before the beginning of the Cold War. The author’s attention was drawn to the everyday problems of workers’ factories. Such as: food, housing, health care, heating, transport, etc. Also noted are the production problems associated with the end of the war and the partial re-profiling of enterprises. The problems of shortage of hands, personnel turnover, theft and the development of new equipment are touched upon. Measures to solve household and production problems of workers are also affected. In particular, the bonus system and the transition of the life of plants to a peaceful channel.

Keywords: everyday life, housing, public health, food, fuel, workers, a factory, transport.





Lapina I.Y., Kargapoltsev S.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Meeting on the Neman: diplomatic success, draw or defeat of Alexander I? (210th anniversary of the Tilsit Treaty between Russia and France)………………………………………….60

IRINA YRIEVNA LAPINA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: mvp@spbgasu.ru

SERGEY YRIEVICH KARGAPOLTSEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 190005, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyjskaya ul., 4. E-mail: flot@lan.spbgasu.ru

The article examines the military-political aspects of peace negotiations between Alexander I and Napoleon Bonaparte in Tilsit on the Neman River in June 1807. The problems of diplomatic confrontation between Russia and France during the Napoleonic wars in Europe are analyzed. An assessment of the contemporary understanding of this episode of history in the scholarly literature and historiography is given. The conclusion is made about the inconsistency of the results of the concluded treaty and the complexity of Russia’s geopolitical position at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An unbiased analysis of the conditions of the Treaty of Tilsit shows that Alexander I was without his colleagues and had the obligation to support France not only in the continental blockade of England, but also to fight against the enemies of Napoleon. The solution of the Polish issue was also extremely unprofitable for Russia, because it returned not only the Polish statehood, but also its hostility.

The meeting of Alexander I with Napoleon Bonaparte in Erfurt in the autumn of 1808 was complicated the relationship between Russia and France. The impossibility of searching for further political compromises motivated the invasion of Napoleon’s Great Army to Russia and its defeat in the war of 1812.

Keywords: Emperor Alexander I, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, Russian Empire, French Empire, Napoleonic wars, Treaty of Tilsit.


Zhukova A.E. (Saint Petersburg). Asian Department in the structure of the ministry of foreign affairs of Russia in the second half of the 19th century: functions, personal composition, character features…………………………………….66

ANASTASIJA EVGEN’EVNA ZHUKOVA — Postgraduate Student, History Department, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: Anastasiia.sm@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the study of the characteristic features of the functioning of the Asian Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the formation of its personnel, as well as the activities of its employees in the second half of the 19th century. On the basis of legislative sources, the States of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 1868 and 1897, the documents of the personal funds of officials of the department and memoirs of contemporaries, official functions of the department were revealed, in practice for most of the staff the extensive correspondence was conducted, the internal structure and number of staff were studied, marked special estimates of diplomats and officials of the activities of this unit of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Asian Department, unlike other central institutions of the Ministry, had its own Eastern language training department, where necessary specialists were trained to work in the department itself and to replenish the states of foreign institutions in the countries of the East. During the period under review, the department was attached by the largest number of newcomers, which made it a kind of a springboard for the start of a successful career in the ministry with the possibility of moving directly to the diplomatic service. At the same time, the Asian Department was characterized by such traditional features of the foreign policy department as the continuity of generations, when in service in it consisted of whole families. The Department was one of the most important central regulations of the Foreign Ministry, whose activities were of particular importance for the work of the ministry in St. Petersburg and its foreign missions.

Keywords: Russia, Asian Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, state administration, diplomacy, bureaucracy, personal history.


Gomon K.A. (Saint Petersburg). Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the Great Britain policy after the defeat of Turkey in World War I (on materials of meetings of the British Imperial war Council and the Military Council in November-December 1918)……………………………………………………………………………73

KONSTANTIN ANDREEVICH GOMON — Postgraduate student and Applicant. 190000, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Kolomiazski pr., 20–615. E-mail: kupigriliato@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the events in Azerbaijan in the first months after the defeat in the First World War of the Ottoman Empire and surrender of Baku to the British troops. It shows the contradictions in the British War Council and Imperial War Council in the formulation of British policy in the Caucasus in November-December 1918, and, above all, in relation to the oil district of Baku. The statements of the majority of English politicians were of a declarative character, proclaiming the need for the peoples of Transcaucasia themselves to decide their political fate, however, really disputes the English politicians has led to recognition of promising economic importance of the Baku oil fields, on the one hand, and the reluctance to make the material, financial and military efforts to effect real control over the Caucasus. After the defeat in the First World War the Ottoman Empire (30 October 1918) and Germany (11 November 1918) before the winners opened such prospects, against which the complex of the Baku situation was not so beneficial and could be shelved for a while. Economic considerations have led British politicians to a de facto recognition of ADR as a political force, more suitable to the plans of the English politicians in Baku, the Bolsheviks or the whites. However, formal recognition of ADR the countries-winners has not happened. The internal contradictions in the British government and the growing power of public unrest against intervention in Soviet Russia prevented the British military to launch a large-scale and long-term occupation of the Caucasus, allowing the local people to «stew in their own pot».

Keywords: World War I, Armistice of Mudros, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, British intervention in Transcaucasia, General W. Thompson.


Borisov M.M., Andreev A.S. (Saint Petersburg). New foreign policy vector of Argentina………………82

MIKHAIL MIKHAILOVICH BORISOV — Postgraduate student of the Department of American Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolnogo st., 1/3, 8 ent., 150. E-mail: borisovmikhail@hotmail.com

ANTON SERGEEVICH ANDREEV — Lecture of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines, State Institute of Economics, Law, Finance and Technology (Gatchina, Leningrad reg.), Employee of the Department of Scientific Research, Saint Petersburg State University. 191060, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Smolnogo st., 1/3, 8 ent., 150. E-mail: a.s.andreev@spbu.ru

The article analyzes the changes taking place in the foreign policy of the Republic of Argentina under President Mauricio Macri. Article identifies new areas of foreign policy, regional relations with new centers of power such as Brazil and China. We consider the activity of Argentine in the integration associations in Latin America and note the status and perspectives of existing foreign agreements with outer-hemisphere actors of international relations, in particular with Russia. A wide range of sources and literature were used such as official documents, statements, scholarly works. Novelty is represented by the fact that in modern domestic historiography, special attention was not paid to the new foreign policy of the Argentine Republic after the presidential elections, the conclusions made during the writing of the article, can be applied to understand contemporary trends in the foreign policy of Buenos Aires.

Keywords: foreign policy, Argentina, Mauricio Macri, MERCOSUR, Pacific Alliance.


Dobronravina S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The Challenges for Russian-Nicaraguan relations in the context of Multi-Polar world………………………………………………………………………………………………………92

SOFIA NIKOLAEVNA DOBRONRAVINA — Postgraduate student of the Saint Petersburg State University. 194017, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Gavrskaya st., 8–20. E-mail: sofya.dobronravina@gmail.com

The article deals with the dynamics of bilateral relations between Nicaragua and Russia, the traditions of these relations and their current state. In recent years, the contacts of the Russian Federation with the Latin American countries for several reasons got a significant development. Russia seeks to «return to Latin America» and participate in political and socio-economic processes in the region. In this process, the Russian Federation needs to take into account the specifics of the relations between Latin American states in building bilateral and, especially, multilateral relations with them. In this regard, it seems relevant to consider the current dynamics of relations between Nicaragua and the Russian Federation in the context of the territorial dispute between Colombia and Nicaragua, which is an important factor affecting international relations in the region.

Keywords: Nicaragua, Colombia, Russia’s return to Latin America, Russian-Latin American relations.





Egorov S.O. (Novosibirsk). On the perception of the church cult by mediaeval dualist heresies: Bulgarian Bogomils’ case (X cent.)…………………………………………………………………………………………100

STANISLAV OLEGOVICH EGOROV — Lecturer, Department of Humanities, Postgraduate student, Department of World History, Institute of Humanities, Novosibirsk State University. 630090, Russian Federation, Novosibirsk, Lyapunova st. 3. E-mail: segorov752@gmail.com

This article is dedicated to reconstruction of mediaeval dualist Christian heresies’ perception of church cult, participated in orthodox Christianity. As the other dualist heresies, Bulgarian Bogomils denied basic elements of church cult (icons, services, sacraments, Cross symbol), that performed a function of the “Bible for illiterates”, expressing main theological ideas in visual and interactive forms. The research is based on analysis of original texts of Bogomils and heresiologists, contemporary to them. The author makes a conclusion, that Bulgarian heretics had their own symbolical structure, where icon was replaced by body, church service – by collective ritual, sacraments – by only “spiritual baptism” ritual (consolamentum), and Cross – by book. In addition, Bogomils based their religious practices on using Christian symbolical structures, existed in culture, interpreting them under their dualistic world-view. This research shows Bogomils heresy’s historical phenom in the light of semiotical practices, what is rather new for historiography.

Keywords: the Bogomils, Christianity, dualism, church cult, icon, ritual, Cross, sign system.


Krivoshey D.Y. (Moscow), Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Lapidary art items and Fabergé firm clients, 1909–1916…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………106

DMITRY YUREVICH KRIVOSHEY — Independent researcher. 117279, Russian Federation, Moscow, Generala Antonova str., 4–1–172. E-mail: academicien@yandex.com

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya ul., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The unique document «Fabergé’s general ledger, 1909–1916», which was found out in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, give us a possibility to find a new features of Fabergé firm producing and trade. This theme is a rather actual both for collectors, and for art dealers too, because a historical provenance of items and its belonging to the historical persons increase its value in many times. In the article, we have a task to introduce into scholarly circulation the new data about a range and an amount of Fabergé firm lapidary art items, which were acquired by significant group of clients (including members of Russian imperial house and some members of European and Asian dynasties).

Keywords: lapidary art, Fabergé, Imperial family, house of Romanov, monarchic houses.


Skurlov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Visit of Eugene Fabergé to Livadia on Easter 1912 for Presentation of Imperial Easter Egg…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………111

VALENTIN VASIL’EVICH SKURLOV — Ph.D. in Art History, Expert of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, Scientific Secretary of the Memorial Fund Faberge (Saint Petersburg). 199406, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nalichnaya ul., 37–3–47. E-mail: valentinskurlov@mail.ru

The article discusses the history of the Imperial Easter egg «Tsarevich» manufactured by Faberge on Easter 1912 for Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. The full text of the letter by Eugene Carlovich Faberge (1874–1960), the eldest son of Carl Fabergé, from the archives of Tatiana Fabergé (Geneva) is first published which indicates that the father asked him to give this egg to Emperor Nicholas II personally in Livadia. The letter was written in 1934 and addressed to H.Ch. Bainbridge, the head of the London branch, who collected materials for the biography of Carl Faberge. Eugene Faberge told interesting details about his journey to the Crimea and about the impression that the Easter masterpiece by Faberge produced upon the Emperor. Gratitude of the Emperor expressed to Carl Faberge reveals the confidential interpersonal relations between them which went beyond the ordinary relationship between seller and buyer. In the article the further history of the Easter egg «Tsarevich» is traced, estimation of the egg made by the Kremlin Armory in 1927 is critically analyzed, the role of A. Hammer in sale of this subject is discussed. The egg was sold to Mrs. Lillian Thomas Pratt, the wife of the Director of the American company «General Motors» who bequeathed it as part of her collection to Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, Virginia. The fact is specified that the genuine miniature of Tsarevich Alexis by miniature painter Vasilii Zuev was damaged more than 30 years ago and replaced with color photography. Questions are defined for further study of the history of the egg. The critical issue is detection of the cause which made for the concept of the egg in 1912. The article is intended for historians and art historians studying works by Faberge.

Keywords: Eugene Faberge, Imperial Easter egg «Tsarevich», Emperor Nicholas II, Livadia, Armand Hammer, Lillian Thomas Pratt, miniature, Vasilii Zuev.





Grinёv A.V. (Saint Petersburg). The Russian Fleet and the Colonization of Alaska: The Military Factor………………116

ANDREI VAL’TEROVICH GRINЁV — Doctor in Historical Sciences, Professor of the Higher School of Social Sciences of the Humanities Institute, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The Russian military fleet played a deciding role in the opening of Alaska, though later relatively few of its ships appeared in the region, passing the baton to ships of private merchant companies, and then to the Russian-American Company, which governed Alaska until its sale to the United States in 1867. Most of the company’s ships had rather limited military capabilities. Therefore, although the significance of the fleet in the development of Alaska was extremely great, the military aspect in this process manifested itself relatively weakly. The ships under the Russian flag primarily carried out transport and convoy functions, shielding flotillas of company hunting baidarki (skin boats) from the attacks of hostile Indians, and later conducted formal patrols for watching foreign whaling ships. Almost the only episodes, in which Russian ships were used in battle was the participation of the sloop Neva in a fight with the Tlingit Indians in 1804 and the raids of two Russian-American Company ships in 1806-1807 on Japanese villages on Sakhalin Island and the southern Kuril Islands.

Keywords: sailing ships, Russian military fleet, colonization of Alaska, Russian America, Russian-American Company, North Pacific.


Bobryshev G.O. (Kursk). Food supply of the lower ranks of the Manchu armies during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905……………………………………………………………………………………………………134

GEORGII OLEGOVICH BOBRYSHEV — Postgraduate student, History and Philology Faculty, Belgorod State National Research University. 305000, Russian Federation, Kursk, Dimitrova st., 37B, apt. 49. E-mail: gobobryshev@gmail.com

In this article, the organization of the food supply system of the lower ranks, its direct functioning and its influence on the formation of the everyday life of servicemen is considered. In connection with the increase in the number of special studies on the history of everyday life, the study of the allowance of a soldier at the level of everyday life is relevant today. The sources of the declared topic are legislative provisions, archival materials, military historical research and memoir literature. On this basis, the facts revealed, an analysis was made of the quality of the contentment of soldiers participating in the war, its compliance with the efforts expended and the impact on the life of the front. The novelty of the study lies in revealing the fact that the Chief Quartermaster Administration was unprepared for the food supply of the Manchu armies, which led to the organization of self-reliance of troops with the necessary products. The study leads to the conclusion that there are insufficient provisions, welding and ration of the lower ranks, which adversely affected both the overall life of the soldiers and their health.

Keywords: Russian-Japanese war of 1904–1905, Manchuria, lower ranks, food, field kitchens, provisions, surplus, tea allowance, ration.


Agaeva D.M. (Moscow). Prisoners of war of the Entente armies in Germany……………………………142

DIANA MAGOMEDOVNA AGAEVA — Researcher of the Research Center (fundamental military-historical problems), Military University of the Ministry of Defence, Master of History at the European University (Hanover, Germany). 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14. E-mail: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

This article examines one of the poorly studied problems of the First World War ― the problem of captivity, and more specifically the prisoners of war of the Entente countries, held in the territory of the main instigator of the war, the German Empire. On specific examples it discusses the issues such as the principles of international law governing the content of prisoners of war, as reflected in the provisions of the Hague Convention on Prisoners of War and the observance of its articles during the First World War, types of camps, detention conditions, activities of international charitable organizations in the interest of prisoners of war, hygiene, help, mail, cultural and religious life, the possibility to escape, the use of the labor of prisoners of war in the camp and beyond, the internment of prisoners of war. Methods and actions applied by the German administration regarding the punishments of guilty prisoners of war, especially those who escaped from the camp, are considered. The article provides statistics on the number of prisoners of war of the Entente in the territory of Germany, their number decrease, depending on the disease, epidemics or other reasons. A brief statistical analysis related to prisoners of war of Western countries (English, French) and eastern (Russian), emphasizing more negative attitude of the German administration to the latter.

Keywords: war prisoners, First World War, Hague Convention, custody, camps for prisoners of war, Entente, mail, food, work, escape.


Volkov S.V. (Moscow). The question of the Russian Army combat efficiency by the beginning of 1917……………150

SERGEY VLADIMIROVICH VOLKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Research Supervisor of Biographic institute, Russian fund of assistance to science and education. 119146, Russian Federation, Moscow, Komsomolskii pr., 23/7, korp. 2. E-mail: swolkov@yandex.ru

By the end of 1916 — to the beginning of 1917 the Russian industry, having made huge effort, could provide army to all necessary. At this time stocks of arms and artillery shells of the Russian Army did not concede to armies of her allies. Also, losses in command structure were completely filled. The general human losses of Russia in relation to number mobilized, the number of adult men and number of all population were significantly less, than in any other of the being at war countries. Unlike the majority of other countries, Russia did not have problems with food. The fighting spirit of the Russian Army by the beginning of 1917 remained is rather high. There were neither the military nor economic factors interfering victorious completion of war by Russia.

Keywords: World War I, Russian Army, military losses, production of arms, officer corps, revolutionary propaganda, military censorship.





Zubkov А.А. (Nizhny Novgorod). Implementation of the general management scheme of Automotive industry in the 1970s………………………………………………………………………………………………………………154

ALEKSANDR ALEKSEEVICH ZUBKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Methodology, History and Philosophy of Science, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev. 603163, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Verhne-Pecherskaya, 9/1–40. E-mail: azubkov51@yandex.ru

The study and generalization of the experience of the organization of domestic automotive industry, related to the implementation of measures to improve the management structure of the automotive industry in the 70s of the XX century, is of a certain scientific and practical interest. During this period, the automotive industry is becoming one of the foremost branches of the country’s economic complex. In accordance with the requirements of the economic reform, increasing the level of concentration of production in the automotive industry, a lot of work was done to introduce the general scheme of automobile management developed by the Ministry of Automobile Industry. In this regard, in the automotive industry, organizational work to improve production management has sharply increased. An important role in optimizing the organizational structure of the management was played by the relevant decrees of the highest state administration bodies, the Ministry of the Automobile Industry (resolution of March 2, 1973 “On Some Measures to Improve Industry Management”), which obliged to ensure transition to a two-tier and three-tier management system. Despite the difficulties that have arisen as a result of the formation of new structures, the process of creating new and expanding previously established production associations has been actively carried out, and much work has been done to improve their management structure. The activity of the central administrative apparatus became closer to production. This allowed us to quickly solve the problems of the development of associations, simplified control and verification of execution. The source of the research was the materials of the state archives of the Russian Federation of the Automotive Information Research Institute.

Keywords: Automotive industry, general management scheme, production, production association, production structure, management structure.





Fortunatov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Augustine Betancourt as the chief architect of St. Petersburg: to the 200th anniversary of the Committee for buildings and hydraulic works……………………………………………………………159

VLADIMIR VALENTINOVICH FORTUNATOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department «History, Philosophy, Political Theory and Sociology» Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University. 190031, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Moskovsky pr., 9, off. 4–311. E-mail: elena.fortunatov@mail.ru

The bicentenary of the Committee for the buildings and hydraulic works created by Emperor Alexander I in 1816 to transform St. Petersburg into a beautiful and comfortable city, a worthy capital of the Russian Empire, the victors of Napoleonic France, went unnoticed for the broader Russian and even the Petersburg public. In the scholarly and popular literature on the history of St. Petersburg, its luxurious architectural and building appearance, books on the majestic squares, avenues, palaces, bridges of North Palmyra do not essentially illuminate the role of engineers who solved numerous technical problems of urban development. In the article, based on archival (Russian State Historical Archive, Central State Historical Archives of St. Petersburg) and other sources for the first time, the multi-faceted activity of the first chairman of the Beauty Committee the Spaniard of Augustine Betancourt (1758–1824) as the chief architect of Russia and St. Petersburg.

Keywords: Committee for buildings and hydraulic works, Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Railways, town planning, engineering school, architecture, ensemble, complex.





Shakhalilov Sh. (Moscow). Geopolitical and civilization aspects of the Eurasian integration…………………………….166

SHAMANSUR SHAKHALILOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Chair of Geopolitics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1. E-mail: timur7628@mail.ru

Nowadays Russia is in front of double challenges: to create innovative economy and become a global powerful state. The USA and the European Union are sure that this scenario poses a threat to their interests and make joint efforts for weakening of the Russian positions. First of all they try to isolate Russia from the CIS countries. In respond to this policy Russia gave the start to the Eurasian integration.

This article discloses the uniting potential of the Eurasian idea that permits to build relations between countries on the equal, voluntary, democratic base, to protect their economic and geopolitical interests.

Special attention is paid to civilization component of the Eurasian integration, similarity of traditions, notions, values of the peoples within the Eurasian space, which were formed under existed conditions, such as community of their historical fates, experience of the long living in the common state, joint struggle for independence.

The author presents the Eurasian integration as a civilization project, preserving cultural identity of the peoples that is attacked by the West civilization offering its ideals as universal.

Keywords: Eurasianism, Eurasian integration, geopolitics, civilization, culture, globalization, national interest, CIS.





Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Extraordinary military journalist Ivan A. Khitrov (review on the publication «Military journalist Colonel Ivan Khitrov: the roads of the Great Patriotic… (articles of the war and postwar years. 1941–1952)». Samara: ASGARD Publ., 2015. 480 p.)……………………………………………………………………………175

SERGEI NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio», Head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Regional Studies, St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law. 191014, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Liteinyi pr., 42. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The review analyzes the contents of the book «Military journalist Colonel Ivan Khitrov: the roads of the Great Patriotic… (articles of the war and postwar years. 1941–1952)» (Samara: ASGARD Publ., 2015. 480 p.). The book is published by the initiative and with the active participation of Povolzhskii branch of the Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The daughter of I.A. Khitrov, doctor of historical sciences N.A. Khitrova participated in preparing the publication. The content of the book indicates that the author was not only brave and talented military journalist, but a highly-qualified specialist in the field of military strategy and tactics. The author of the review comes to the conclusion that this quality allowed I.A. Khitrov to become one of the most prominent authors of military periodicals and the newspaper «Red star» during the Great Patriotic War and during the first postwar years.

Keywords: Ivan A. Khitrov, military journalism, Great Patriotic War, strategy, tactics.





Zolotarev V.A. (Moscow). To the 70th anniversary of Professor Valery Ivanovich Marchenkov………………………….180

VLADIMIR ANTONOVICH ZOLOTAREV — Honorary Professor of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Chief Researcher of the Faculty of World Politics of Lomonosov Moscow State University. 125047, Russian Federation, Moscow, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 14. E-mail: diana.agaeva.2012@mail.ru

The article is dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the birth of a prominent Russian military and teacher V.I. Marchenkov — the head of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Valery Ivanovich gave a lot of strength to the training of Russian officers. The special concern of the military teacher was the activity devoted to the development of the national military history. In particular, thanks to his support and personal participation on the basis of the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, a fundamental 12-volume edition devoted to the history of the Great Patriotic War was prepared.

Keywords: Valery Marchenkov, Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Taman Motorized Rifle Division, the history of the Great Patriotic War.