Klio # 6 (138) 2018





Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). The meta-historical pivot of the Roerichs’ cosmophilosophy (according to the recent historiography)……………………………………………………………………………………………13

DMITRY PETROVICH SAMORODOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History of the Fatherland and Methods of Teaching History, Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University. 453103, Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sterlitamak, Lenin Ave., 49.

The article attempts to show that ideologically N.K. and E.I. Roerichs’ cosmophilosophical views are meta-historical and involve highly intelligent, divine causality of the planetary historical process, partonising role of the highly intelligent hierarchical forces of the subtle Cosmos in the historical evolution of the humanity. It is shown that some modern experts from the scientific circle and representatives of alternative historiography qualify the Roerichs’ views on the deep essence of human history as meta-historical. The article reveals the main idea of the well-grounded by the author meta-historicism principle to explain historical reality. The article shows the non-mechanical essence of the principle which is different from the generally accepted in the historical science historicism principle presuming mechanical, linear (materialistic) understanding of history. The meta-historicism principle as the author believes is characteristic of the Roerichs’ historical and philosophical beliefs. The spouses should be considered one of the first founders of the meta-historical worldview.

Keywords: meta-history, meta-historicism, cosmophilosophy, the Roerichs, the historical process, non-mechanical science, God, Higher Mind.





Philippov E.A. (Saint Petersburg). Sugita Gempaku and the «New guide to anatomy». Its role in Dutch studies in Japan during the Edo Era……………………………………………………………………………………23

EVGENII ALEXANDROVICH PHILIPPOV — Postgraduate student, Chair of Theory of Social Development of Asian and African Countries, Faculty of Asian and African Studies, Saint Petersburg State University. 196066, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Altayskaya St., 16–1. E-mail: evgenii.philippov@gmail.com

In the middle of the 16th century Europeans appeared in Japan for the first time. Later Christian missionaries came to the country. Thanks to their activities, some aspects of the European medicine and other fields of knowledge appeared in Japan. In the beginning of the 17th century the bakufu’s government, worried by the growing influence of Christianity and Europeans, issued a series of decrees on the prohibition of Christianity and contacts with Western countries, expelled the missionaries from the country and in 1630 forbade the import of books, which could possibly contain Christian ideas (actually any literature in the European language; the ban was softened in 1720). After Shimabara rebellion government expelled all Europeans, broke any connection with them. The period of the country’s semi-isolation continued till 1853 when Japan was forced to open its ports for American merchant vessels. The exception was made only for the Dutch East India Company in the trading post Dejima in Nagasaki. Some European knowledge continued penetrating in Japan mostly through this place, and some Japanese scientists, who were interested in Europe and European science, called themselves rangakusha — i.e. scholars of Dutch studies.

Sugita Gempaku was a Dutch studies scholar of the Edo period. The history of Rangaku in Japan through the prism of his life is being researched in this article. Also there was briefly introduced to the history creation of one of the most important sources for historians of Dutch studies in Japan — “Kaitai Shinsho”.

Keywords: Rangaku, the Dutch Studies, Sugita Gempaku, Kaitai Shinsho, Rangaku Kotohajime.


Kulpina A.V. (Moscow). Derivational dictionary as a mirror of intellectual culture of the high Middle Ages……………………………………………………30

ALEKSANDRA VIKTOROVNA KULPINA — Postgraduate student, Department of History of the Middle Ages, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Junior Researcher of the Department of Ancient and Mediaeval Philosophy and Science, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1, 922-B. E-mail: satura-nya@mail.ru

The article deals with the analytical description, history and study of a derivational dictionary. For the present this kind of historical source is little explored by either Russian or foreign medievalists. Such dictionaries present the particular stage of the history of Latin lexicography of the 11th–14th c. Their generic feature consists in the specific derivational technique, as a result of which lexemes were united in families based on the morphological and semantic affinity. Derivational dictionaries (unlike glossaries) were intended not only for reading but for active use of language. Typical for derivational dictionaries features like broad vocabulary, detailed and structured entries, conceptual organization of content and stable for a number of ages popularity make this type of source useful for a research taken in the field of the history of objects, words, ideas, citations of the medieval philosophy of language.

Keywords: Derivational dictionary, history of lexicography, intellectual culture, Latin language, Middle Ages.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara), Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). The problems of the history of the Russian Civil War in the Soviet historiography of the period of perestroika (the second half of the 1980s — 1991)…………………………………35

GEORGIY MIKHAYJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading researcher of Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Povolzhsky branch, Samara), 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnyi pereulok, 21, 58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Klio”, Vice-President of the Association of Historians of the Civil War. 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

This article is a logical continuation of the authors’ works published in the journal “Klio”: Early Soviet Historiography of the Civil War in Russia. 1981–1922. 2016. No. 1 (109). Pp. 43–61; Historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the first post-war years (1922–1932). 2016. No. 3 (111). Pp. 21–38; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the 1930s — the first half of the 1950s. 2016. No. 8 (116). Pp. 120–140. Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia during the Khrushchev thaw (the second half of the 1950s — the first half of the 1960s). 2017. No. 3 (123). Pp. 13–28.; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the second half of 1960s and first half of the 1980s. The first article. The terms of the development of Soviet history in the study period. 2017. No. 4 (124). Pp. 46–57; Soviet historiography of the Civil War in Russia in the second half of 1960s and first half of the 1980s. The second article. Analytical review of historiographical sources. 2017. No. 5 (125). Pp. 32–51.

Now the authors analyze a large array of historiographic sources that are chronologically related to the period of the second half of the 1980s — 1991. This is the so-called late Soviet historiography of the period of perestroika — a five-year period of unfulfilled hopes that ended with the collapse of the USSR. It was then that the domestic history began to enter the band of deep methodological crisis. This left an imprint on the study of the history of the Civil War in Russia (1918–1922). The article is made in the format of problem-thematic historiography. The material is presented in an analytical manner. The authors do not pretend to the completeness of the coverage of the problem.

Keywords: late Soviet historiography, the Civil War in Russia, the collapse of the USSR, perestroika, publicity, the White movement.


Kostin N.V. (Samara). The strengthening of military discipline in the Red Army in the 1920s. A brief overview of the Soviet historiographic sources……………………………………………………………………45

NIKITA VLADIMIROVICH KOSTIN — Lecturer of the History Department of the Cossack Institute of Nutrition and Business Industry (Samara Branch), K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (the First Cossack University). 443008, Russian Federation, Samara, Fizkulturnaya St., 90. E-mail: kostin.nv@mail.ru

The author of the article focuses on the Soviet historiographic tradition that considers the development and reformation of the Red Army during the interwar period – the period between the end of the Civil War and the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. In particular, the author touches upon the aspect of military discipline in the 1920s. Primarily, the author reviews the monographic research devoted to this problem. For the purpose of defining special characteristics and general features in the Soviet historiography that addresses the strengthening of military discipline in 1920th, historiographic stages were allocated. In total, the author has identified four historiographical stages. The article presents a general description of the conjunctural historical features of each stage, as well as the analysis of major studies conducted therein. Due to the fact that the article is a brief historiographical review, the author claims neither the depth of the analysis nor the completeness of the problem coverage.

Keywords: Red Army, RKKA, interwar period, 1920s, Soviet historiography, Russian historiography, historiographical stage, party and political work, military discipline.





Chernov A.Y. (Moscow). Late Byzantine second name Κανανός / Cananus: problems of etymology and prosopography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51

ALEKSANDR YUR’EVICH CHERNOV — Postgraduate student, History of the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age Department, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, Lomonosovsky Prospect, 27–4. E-mail: alexandros4ernoff@gmail.com

The article is devoted to the problems of etymology and prosopography of the late Byzantine second name Kananos. The origin of the patronym and the history of its bearers are reconstructed only hypothetically due to the scarcity of available evidence. Despite this, the author shows that the Kananos were a noble and influential late Byzantine family having high status position and famous for its personal contacts with members of the imperial house of Palaeologoi. Two Kananos placed themselves on record of Byzantine literature. After the fall of Constantinople they emigrated to Italy and traveled as political refugees through the countries of Western and Northern Europe.

Keywords: Byzantium, etymology, prosopography, Byzantine aristocracy, Palaeologoi, Manuel II Palaeologus, Theodore I Palaeologus, Cananus, John Kananos, Laskaris Kananos.


Tselunov A.B. (Moscow). Craft and Artisanal Associations of post-Byzantine Ravenna in the Early Middle Ages……………………………………………………………….62

ALEKSEI BORISOVICH TSELUNOV — Postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Editor, JSC ” Big Russian encyclopedia». 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy pr., 27/4. Е-mail: celunov_a@mail.ru

This article deals with the trade and artisanal corporations of early medieval Ravenna in the first centuries after the fall of Byzantine rule. The sources reveal that corporate bodies of the tenth and the eleventh centuries had little to do with their Late Roman and Early Byzantine prototypes, thus presenting a clearly medieval phaenomenon. Unable to maintain and enforce their economic monopoly and corporate restrictions, and liberated from vigilant state supervision, they operated as associations of quasi-noble and well-to-do citizens engaged in craft industry and commerce (but economically never totally relying on these occupations) and integrated into the emerging structures of feudal landownership.

Keywords: Ravenna, Romagna, craft guilds, corporations, post-Byzantine Italy, Early Middle Ages.





Sergeev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Princely surnames of the Moscow state in the years of oprichnina: the princes of Rostov and Yaroslavl…………………………………………………………………………….70

ANTON VADIMOVICH SERGEEV — Ph.D. in History, Head of Department, Institute of Industrial Safety, Labor Protection and Social Partnership. 190098, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Konnogvardeysky Blvd, 19. E-mail: sergeev1967@inbox.ru

The purpose of the article is to find out the fate of Rostovskie and Yaroslavskie Ryurikovich in the years of oprichnina; the values of oprichnih measures for the names recorded in the “Knyazheskie spiski” [“Princely Lists”] of the Dvorovaya Tetrad of the early 1550th Years. To solve these problems, a method of prosopography, involving an analysis of the biographies of the princes, whose lifetime was during the period of oprichnina, was applied. The biographical information contained in the pedigrees books, razryadnykh, pistsovykh books,  Tysyachnaya Kniga of 1550  [the Thousand Book], Dvorovaya tetrad, boyar lists, vkladnykh books, sinodik, chronicles, works of foreign authors are used. The following main conclusions are drawn: as a result of the oprichnina events, the princely territorial associations represented in the Rostov and Yaroslavl Princely Lists of the Dvorovaya tetrad were destroyed. Almost all the princes lost their lands in the “clan nests”, and the number of surnames decreased by 50%. Thanks to a successful career in oprichnina, the individual surnames of the Yaroslavskikh Rurikovich could significantly improve the social status, while the princes of Rostovskie for a few decades dropped out of the Boyar Duma.

Keywords: Oprichnina, Tsar Court, princely aristocracy, Princely Lists.


Prilutskaya A.B. (Moscow). Features of the relationship of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich with members of the imperial family in 1881–1883……………………………………………………………………………80

ANNA BORISOVNA PRILUTSKAYA — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History of the 20th–21st cent., Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 107392, Russian Federation, Moscow, Prostornaya St., 12–3–32. E-mail: pril.an.91@mail.ru

The paper examines the relationship of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich with his family in the first two years of the reign of Alexander III. After the “ministerial crisis” of the spring of 1881, the Grand Duke resigned his posts and left Petersburg, which affected his relationship with his wife and children. Particular attention is paid to the perception of the Grand Duke of the image of Emperor Alexander III and his relationship with relatives, who replaced him in the posts of the head of the Naval Ministry and the chairman of the State Council. After the resignation of Konstantin Nikolayevich, his relatives often played the role of intermediaries between him and Alexander III.

Keywords: Alexander III, dismissal, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, Grand Duchess Alexander Iosifovna, high bureaucracy, imperial family, correspondence, coronation.


Fando R.A. (Moscow). Philanthropy as a factor in the development of Russia’s intellectual potential……………………87

ROMAN ALEKSEEVICH FANDO — Ph.D. in Biology, Leading Researcher, S.I. Vavilov Institute of the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 125315, Russian Federation, Moscow, Baltiiskaya St., 14. E-mail: fando@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of patronage in pre-revolutionary Russia. The wide spread of this phenomenon was influenced by economic, legal, religious, moral and ethical factors of the development of Russian society of the late 19th — early 20th centuries. Thanks to private funds, medical and educational institutions, theatres, libraries were organized. Especially a lot of social and cultural objects appeared in Moscow, where large industrialists and traders lived. The society that supported advanced engineering and scientific developments was created on the money of the manufacturer H.S. Ledentsov. The publishing house of  Sobashnikov brothers led a lot of enlightening work among the population. V.A. Bakhrushin, K.T. Soldatenkov, N.M. Bardygin, P.A. Demidov, A.L. Shanavsky spent  their capital on the establishing of educational institutions. The idea of direct, unremitting service to his country deeply penetrated into the consciousness of large industrialists and entrepreneurs, inspired them to new projects to introduce the achievements of science into the popular consciousness.

Keywords: philanthropy, private funds to support science and education, the merchant.


Nikulenkova E.V. (Saint-Petersburg). Training of Marxist philosophers at the Institute of red professors in the 1920s………………………………………………………………………………94

ELENA VLADIMIROVNA NIKULENKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of Russian history, Pushkin Leningrad State University. 196601, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse, 10. E-mail: elena_na2004@mail.ru

The article considers the process of teaching scientific and pedagogical workers at the philosophical Department of the Institute of red professors in the 1920s. Institute was created to train new scientific personnel in the Marxist Soviet Russia – the “red professors” who were supposed to be different from the pre-revolutionary professors hold Marxist methodology and active participation in the political (party) life of the country. In the 1920s of the philosophical Department of the Institute of red professors was headed by A.M. Deborin, therefore, of students of the Department formed the so-called “deborinskaya school”, actively participated in the creation of the first Marxist works on philosophy and scientific discussions of the 1920s and destroyed in 1930. The article deals with the composition of teachers and students of the philosophical Department, curricula and teaching methods, practical and scientific work of students, their publications and participation in the discussion between «mechanics and dialectics».

Keywords: philosophers-Marxists, the Institute of red professors, philosophy Department, history of philosophy, the training of scientific personnel, A.M. Deborin, deborinska school, mechanists and dialectics.


Maskevich E.D. (Saint-Petersburg). History of the Russian organization of young scouts (ROYS) in Petrograd in 1920–1922……………………………………………………………………………………………………..101

EKATERINA DMITRIEVNA MASKEVICH — Postgraduate student, Department State and municipal government management, North-West Institute of Management branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. 192102, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Strel’bishchenskaya St., 27–7. E-mail: spb-collects@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the history of the founding of the Russian Organization of Young Scouts (ROYS) in Petrograd in 1920–1922. The history of ROYS, as a scout organization of the 1920s, is unique and deserves special attention and study.

Based on the memories of the participants in the events and members of ROYS, the author demonstrates the gradual development of the course of historical events related to the appearance of the Red Scouts and ROYS. Analyzing the funds of the Central State Archive of the historical and political documents in Saint-Petersburg containing the records of outgoing and incoming documents, the archive, the internal records of the proceedings, the minutes of the meetings of the main staff of the ROYS, including the documents for the preparation of the filtration commission, together with the members of the Komsomol, for the transition of members of the ROYS from scouts to young pioneers , the author established a number of important historical facts related to the cessation of the work of Scout organizations in Petrograd and the gradual transition to work with the pioneer organizations in 1922.

Keywords: scouts, red scouts, ROYS, Petrograd, pioneer movement, youth movement, patriotic education, scouting, youth.


Gergilev D.N., Polyanskiy E.V. (Krasnoyarsk).Interpretation of the notion “region” in the zoning reform of 1923………………………………………………106

DENIS NIKOLAEVICH GERGILEV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Russian History, Director of the Institute for the Humanities of Siberian Federal University. 660041, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodnyi St., 82a, Room 460. E-mail.: turilak@yandex.ru

EVGENY VALERIEVICH POLYANSKIY — Master student of the 2nd year of education, Department of Russian History, Institute for the Humanities of Siberian Federal University. 660041, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodnyi St., 82a, Room 434. E-mail.: lebrovski@gmail.com

The article investigates the administrative and territorial reform of 1923 in the retrospect of historical regional science. The science works of V.I. Lenin, I.G. Aleksandrov, A.G. Kushnir and A.I. Rykov have been analyzed. The authors investigate the evolution of the notion “region” during the reform elaboration period. The authors define interrelation between region’s borders and economical activity of a region. In addition, the authors consider the administrative reform of 1923 as a part of the new economic policy of 1920s. There are several points have been examined as key factors in borders determining process. These points are:  geographical division of labor, cultural traditions and state policy. The authors have concluded the formed notion “region” supposed political regionalization that brought contradiction into the existing administrative arrangement and the conditions of planned economy.

Keywords: region, zoning reform, regional policy, discussion, territory, economic specialization, the new economic policy, form of government.





Moshechkov P.V. (Moscow). Czech and Slovak volunteers on the way from Russia to France (May – November 1917)…………………………………………………………………113

PETR VLADIMIROVICH MOSHECHKOV — Postgraduate student, the Department of Southern and Western Slavic History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky prospect, 27-4. E-mail: pmoshechkov@yandex.ru

The subject of the research work is the difficult situation which cropped up during the process of formation of the Czecho-Slovak military units in Russia and France. The article deals with the activity which was realized on this direction by T. G. Masaryk, the famous Czech politician and the leader of Czecho-Slovak national liberation movement. The central emphasis was laid on his negotiations with Russian governmental institutions as well as members of the French military mission on transportation of the servicemen of the Czecho-Slovak military units to the Western front. The light was also thrown upon the position of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of War on this question. Moreover, special attention is given to the process of preparing of the departure of the first two transports of Czech and Slovak volunteers to France.

Keywords: First World War, Russia, France, Czecho-Slovak National council, French military mission, Czecho-Slovak military units, prisoners of war, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of War.


Goroziy V.S. (Moscow). M.M. Litvinov’s commission for the preparation of peace treaties and the post-war arrangement: plans for Western Europe…………………………………………………123

VLADISLAV SERGEEVICH GOROZIY — Postgraduate student, Department of Russian history of the 20th–21st cent., Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovskiy Pr, 27/4. E-mail: vlad.gorozii@gmail.com

The article is dedicated to regarding the activities of members of M.M. Litvionv’s commission for the preparation of peace treaties and the post-war arrangement. Being organized in 1943, commission was called to prepare theoretical basis for formulating soviet diplomacy position on the upcoming peace conferences. The difficulty of сommissions’s work was associated with the necessity to react to dynamic situation at the front and to all the difficulties in the relations with allied Powers. In the result of commission’s work soviet sphere of influence in Europe and safe system of international relations for the next 50 years were formulated. But all its decisions were of recommendatory character and the final word was left for the soviet government and personally for I. V. Stalin. But still all of them had a significant influence on the course of the negotiations in preparation for the peace conferences and in the time of its work.

Keywords: Litvinov’s commission, diplomacy, anti–Hitler coalition, after war regulation, peace conference, system of international relations.


Pu Jiang (Saint Petersburg). The role of the USSR in the creation of the military-industrial complex of the PRC (1949-1957)…………………………………………………………………..129

PU JIANG — Postgraduate student of the Department of the Newest History of Russia, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 5. E-mail: pujiang2012@yandex.ru

The article deals with the development of the military-industrial complex of China at its first stages and the role of the USSR in this process. The connection between the military-industrial complex, the priority for the CPC Central Committee and the rapid development of China’s heavy industry, is characterized. The main areas of Russian-Chinese cooperation in the construction of the military-industrial complex are described: lending, equipment delivery, work of specialists in the field (reconnaissance groups, commissioners and engineers), as well as design organizations of the USSR. It is pointed out that there has been a distortion towards military production, i.е. militarization of China’s economic development. The transitional moment of changing the priorities of China’s military-industrial complex development towards strengthening the scientific and technical potential was noted with the goal of overcoming dependence on the USSR, where, however, China continued to rely on the experience and assistance of the Soviet Union in its technical equipment.

Keywords: military-industrial complex of the PRC, USSR assistance to China, military technologies, defense enterprises.


Arkhangelskaya A.A. (Moscow). South Africa’s foreign policy during the Frederik (Pik) Botha’s government………………………….134

ALEXANDRA ALEXANDROVNA ARKHANGELSKAYA — Ph.D. in History, Researcher, Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 123001, Russian Federation, Moscow, Spiridonovka St., 30/1. E-mail: aarkhangelskaya@gmail.com

This article focuses on the analysis of the changes in the views of the South African state elites during the Pik Botha’s regime. A special focus is on their views on foreign policy orientations or options for the development of statehood in South Africa. For South African foreign policy, this analysis is relevant for a number of reasons. Under Botha, a highly centralized elite was created to form and conduct foreign policy, and the State Security Council became a locus of the foreign policy process, and thus, strong structural ties were established between the political and bureaucratic elites. The predominant ideology of the regime of P.F. Botha was based on a “general national strategy” to counter the “total onslaught” on South Africa. The study of the elites, in turn, has become one of the ways to get an idea of this aspect of South Africa’s foreign policy.

Keywords: history, international relations, political psychology, foreign policy, South Africa, Africa, Pik Botha, history of international relations, South Africa.





Gorbilyov A.M. (Moscow). Kata in the methodology of the Japanese sword-fencing art – kenjutsu in the Edo era (1603–1867)…………………………………………………………………………….141

ALEXEI MIKHAILOVICH GORBILYOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of History and Culture of Japan, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 125009, Russian Federation, Moscow, Mokhovaya St., 11, building 1. E-mail: shigetsu@mail.ru

In the schools of martial arts of the Edo period (1603–1867) were developed the effective methods of training a warrior, aimed not only at training combat techniques, but also in training his consciousness. The mastery of the warrior, in accordance with the Far Eastern concepts, was interpreted as absolute obedience to the body commands of the spirit.

The main role in the teaching of martial arts was played by the practice of special complexes – kata, which absorbed all the «practical wisdom» acquired by the founders of the budzyutsu schools in duels on the battlefields. This article examines the methodological foundations of practicing kata in kenjutsu – the art of sword fencing as an integral method of training a warrior – the method of developing physical abilities, the formation of special skills, the improvement of technical skill and the achievement of a special state of consciousness that is considered optimal for combat. Each school has its own fixed set of kata, the names of which are listed in special «catalogs» (mokuroku). Kata is the only method of training that allows everyone to practice all possible methods of martial arts with almost all types of weapons, most of which can not be trained and tested in training fights because of their extreme danger.

Keywords: Edo period, martial arts, kata, kenjutsu, fencing with sword.


Panichkin A.P. Old Believers and Sects in Saint Petersburg of the 18th century…………………………………………146

ALEXANDER PHILIPPОVICH PANICHKIN — Candidate of Theology, Archpriest, Assistant Chief of the Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy «The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov», Senior Priest of the St. Paul the Confessor and St. Righteous Warrior Feodor Ushakov Church in the Peter the Great Naval Corps (St. Petersburg). 192023, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Elizarova Pr., 10, apt. 282. E-mail: alpriest13@yandex.ru

The article tells about the origins of old believers in Saint Petersburg. At first, they were representatives of the Pomortsy schism. Later, the doctrine of the “Fedoseevtsy” confession as well as the representatives of the “Pomortsy” or “Danilovtsy” confessions penetrated from Poland and the Novgorod province. The article tells about their situation in the society, the applicable laws, the measures undertaken by the government against their propaganda and the attempts to involve Orthodox people in the schism. It discusses the tricks which the dissenters resorted to avoid persecution and deportation from Petersburg, their attempts to find themselves influential patrons from among the aristocracy and their unwillingness to be registered as outright raskolniki. The article also tells about the government’s actions against secret teachers of raskol, the conduct of the investigation in the Preobrazhensky Prikaz and the cases of conversion of the old believers to Orthodoxy. In addition, it relates about the Khlysty sect, how it penetrated into the capital and the actions against it undertaken by the Orthodox Church, as well as about the Skoptsi sect and its emergence in Petersburg.

Keywords: old believers in Saint Petersburg, raskolniki, outright and secret raskolniki, the Preobrazhensky Prikaz, dissent teachers, conversion to Orthodoxy, Pomortsy, Danilovtsy, Fedoseevtsy, Khlysty, Skoptsi.





Poltorak S.N., Ushakov V.A., Il’in E.V. (Saint Petersburg). Russia in the World Wars: The History of Captives (Part Two. The World War II)…………………………………………………………………………153

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the journal “Klio”. 195220, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Grazhdanskiy Pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

VLADIMIR ALEXSANDROVICH USHAKOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: v.ushakov@spbu.ru

EVGENIJ VASILIEVICH IL’IN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Director of the Center for the Study of Military History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: e.ilin@spbu.ru

The paper is based upon a study of various sources left by participants and contemporaries of the World War II (The Great Patriotic War), documents and reports of the Red Cross and other organizations that helped captives and examined their hard conditions, as well as information from publications by specialists in captivity history for the 20th century. As a result, based upon the findings obtained, many conditions and factors were studied, which influenced separate captives or group of captives. It was established that the situation of captives depended on the nature of antagonisms that caused wars. The article showed that the institute of captivity was influenced by civilization peculiarities of the warring nations, and differences were considered as to how the winners treated their prisoners of war at the front and on the home front in the period of World War II (The Great Patriotic War). Also the authors characterized the acts of prisoners of war, which would enabled them to come through, survive, do harm to the enemy, and break free in order to save themselves, and help their comrades and homeland, and came back home.

Keywords: captives (prisoners of war), captivity — the institute of captivity, enemy, the World War II (The Great Patriotic War), Russia — USSR, Germany, warring nations, camp.





Simonyan R.Z. (Kursk). Specificity of formation of the system of zemsky health care in the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries (on materials of Kursk province)………………………………………………162

RIMMA ZORIKOVNA SIMONYAN — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health and Healthcare, Kursk State Medical University. 305029, Russian Federation, Kursk, Karl Marx St., 63–30. E-mail: rimmasimonyan@mail.ru, simonyan.rimma@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to research of the formation process of the system of zemsky healthcare as one of the most important areas of medical care on the example of Kursk province in the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries. In that period the current healthcare system, under the control of zemstvо, developed in several directions: providing medical and pharmaceutical care, zemsky psychiatry and sanitary. The system of zemsky selfgovernment assumed collegial decision-making in all medical matters. This was the opening of new medical institutions and pharmacies, providing them with qualified medical and pharmaceutical personnel, the patronage of psychiatric services, development sanitary and the fight against infectious diseases and epidemics. Because zemstvо were deprived of legislative initiative, for solutions all questions health development in province, would have required the consent of the Ministry of internal аffairs. Petition from zemstvo should a long way to go: to the Governor, and then to the Minister and back. Because of bulkiness and bureaucracy state management system many issues were delayed for a long time — till several years. An obstacle in the development of zemsky health was lack of funding. Thus, positive initiatives and progressive ideas of zemstvо, often not found timely implementation of in the practice of the organization the healthcare system. However, the activities of the provincial zemstvо contribution into the development original health system directed on the provision of free medical care to the population.

Keywords: healthcare, curative care, drug provision, psychiatric care, sanitary, the Congress of doctors.


Kovalevsky D.G. (Saint Petersburg). The management bodies of the Maritime Department’s plants as a model of the organization of the state industry on commercial principles in the era of the armored shipbuilding of Russia at the end of the 19th century……………………………………………………………169

DENIS GEORGIEVICH KOVALEVSKY — Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences, Researcher of the Military Educational and Scientific Centre of the Navy “The Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N.G. Kuznetsov”. 197045, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Ushakovskaya emb., 17/1. Е-mail: Kovalevskiy1963@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the study and analysis of the management problems of the Baltic Shipbuilding and Obukhov Steel Plants, which carried out orders for naval armament in the era of construction of the world and domestic armored fleet. The main archival document of the study was the draft of a unified Regulation on the management of the Baltic Iron-making Shipbuilding and Mechanical Plant and Obukhov Steel Plant, prepared by the officials of the Ministry of Marine in 1893. It is noted that the basis for this document was the temporary provisions of the Baltic and Obukhov plants, since the ideas embedded in them, which have already been tested in practice. The decisions of the State Council of the Russian Empire on the reorganization of the management bodies of the factories of the Naval Ministry are given. The article describes the activities of a special commission that developed a single Regulation. It is emphasized that the largest number of articles of the latter were taken from the temporary Regulations of the Baltic Plant. It is noted that the decision was made due to the fact that the plant continued to work on commercial principles. The procedure for coordinating the draft Regulations in the Departments of the State Control, Military and Finance Ministries is described. The article draws conclusions on the nature of the new Regulation, on its compliance with the requirements of the Russian armored shipbuilding industry.

Keywords: Regulation on the management of the Baltic Iron-making Shipbuilding and Mechanical and Obukhov Steel Plants, the Ministry of Marine, armored shipbuilding.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Collector of church values Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev: life with a tragic end (Part Two)……………………………………………………………………………………………………178

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya St., 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is closely related to our previous publications in the journal “Klio” on the topic “The Cultural Revolution in Bolshevik in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1917‒1927”. They dealt with the problems associated with the withdrawal of Bolsheviks from all sections of the population and from various institutions of property, which primarily concerned art values of a museum nature, including objects of religious worship. The article presents a variety of historical material, which concerns the seizure by them of the archaeologist E.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev whole museum, which was a unique collection of ancient church property. His diverse activities in tsarist times were shown in charitable organizations, during the years of Soviet power, his concern for the protection of seized valuable property in Petrograd and in the Northern Region, about supplying the museums with fuel and their personnel with food. The article examines his participation in the re-evacuation from Moscow to Petrograd museum treasures; shows his defense on the pages of the newspaper “Pravda” by journalist L.S. Sosnovsky from accusations of a fighter against religion Em. Yaroslavsky, which led, ultimately, to his arrest and execution.

Keywords: Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev, Petrograd, Novgorod, Ryutino, temple-museum, church property, protection of monuments of art and antiquity, nonresident section, landowner, Pravda newspaper, “wonderful bourgeois”.





Volkovskiy N.L. (Saint Petersburg). The book on the transformation of mass media to strategic weapons (Reflections on the monograph I.A. Nikolaichuk, M.M. Yangleva, G.S. Yakova “Wings of Chaos”. Moscow, Ikar Publ., 2018………………………..189

NIKOLAI LUKIANOVICH VOLKOVSKIY — Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor, Department of Journalism and Mass Communications, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7/9. E-mail: vnluk@yandex.ru

Review of the book, which reveals the defining role of the media and communication in the preservation of peace and stability or, conversely, in the destabilization of the external and internal political situation in virtually any state of the world in the interests of certain elite groups. The monograph is based on a solid source base using a number of original techniques for analyzing information. The authors are direct participants in scientific research on the problems of information security in Russia.

Keywords: geopolitical interests, conflict, information space, media metrics, public opinion, propaganda, mass media, chaos theory.


Poltorak S.N. (Saint Petersburg). Russian historians today and twenty years ago…………………………………………193

SERGEY NIKOLAEVICH POLTORAK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Klio». 195220, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Grazhdanskii pr., 11. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

The author of the review highly appreciates the three-volume biobibliographical dictionary prepared by the Moscow professor A.A. Chernobaev (Chernobaev A.A. Historians of Russia of the end of 19th – the beginning of the 21st century. Biobibliographic dictionary. Vol. 1, 2, 3. Moscow, Sobranie Publ., 2016). It is emphasized that before the publication of the three-volume book, A.A. Chernobaev has issued several editions of the similar biobibliographic dictionary, more modest on volume. The author pays attention to specifics of the present edition. In particular, it is noted that the dictionary includes information about historians who were engaged in research activity from the end of еру 19th – to the beginning of the 21st century. The reviewer pays attention to argumentativeness of description in the three-volume edition of politicians’ biographies. There are V.I. Lenin, S.P. Melgunov, P.N. Milyukov, I.V. Stalin, V.M. Chernov among them. According to the reviewer, the three-volume biobibliographic dictionary has the huge potential and the prospect of development.

Keywords: A.A. Chernobaev, historiography, national history, historians of Russia, biobibliographical dictionary.


Losik A.V., Sherba A.N. (Saint Petersburg). The history of scientific and technical progress at the renowned factory of Nizhny Novgorod region………………………………………………………………………….196

ALEXANDER VITALIAVICH LOSIK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Baltic State Technical University “Voenmech” named after D.F. Ustinov, Deputy Editor of the journal “Кlio”. 197374, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Shkolnaya St., 88, 2, 81. E-mail: poltorak2006@yandex.ru

ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH SHERBA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior Researcher of the Department of Military History of North-western region of the Russian Federation, Research Institute of Military History, Military Academy of the General Staff. 191055, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Nevsky Pr., 10. E-mail: a.n.sherba@maiil.ru

The history of the oldest Nizhny Novgorod enterprises — factory “Red Sormovo” is dedicated to the collection, compiled by doctors of historical Sciences E. I. Podrobnym, E. P. Titovym. The collection is prepared on the basis of published archival documents, memoirs of veterans-sormova, reports and materials from the Museum of history of factory “Red Sormovo”, publications on the history of the famous enterprise. Authors-the authors sought to show the contribution of the Sormovo works in the development of economic and defense power of the country, the merits of the best people of the plant who worked for the good of our Fatherland. The history of the famous giant plant in the Nizhny Novgorod region are presented primarily as Arsenal.

Keywords: underwater shipbuilding, shipyard, submarine, ships, tanks, T-34, production Manager, design engineer, ammo, ammunition, archival documents.





Ippolitov G.M. (Samara). Response of the official opponent to the dissertation of Shcherbakov Yuri Vadimovich “Historical experience of the staffing of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army in 1920–1930s (on the example of the Moscow and Petrograd military districts)”, presented for the degree of Ph.D. in history in specialty 07.00.02 ― domestic history……………………………………………………………201

GEORGIY MIKHAYJLOVICH IPPOLITOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Leading researcher of Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Povolzhsky branch, Samara). 443101, Russian Federation, Samara, Novomolodezhnyi pereulok, 21, 58. E-mail: pfiri@ ssc.smr.ru; gippolitov@rambler.ru

In the review below of the official opponent for the dissertation of Shcherbakov Yuri Vadimovich “Historical experience of the staffing of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army in the 1920–1930s (on the example of the Moscow and Petrograd military districts)” reveals its positive aspects, and also some shortcomings that are not of a systemic nature, do not reduce the scholarly quality of this qualification work. It is concluded that the applicant deserves the award of the required degree of Ph.D. in history by specialty 07.00.02 ― domestic history.

Keywords: official opponent, Yu.V. Shcherbakov, source base, dissertation theses for defense, Red Army, stuffing, militia system.





To the 65th anniversary of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Georgiy Mikhailovich Ippolitov……………………207

The article refers to the well-known Russian historian G.M. Ippolitov, who turned 65 at this June. He is the author of more than 400 scholarly papers, including 22 monographs. He is the world’s largest expert on the history of A.I. Denikin, a connoisseur of Russian military history. G.M. Ippolitov trained 2 doctors and 15 candidates in history. For a long time he works in the editorial board of the monthly journal “Klio”.

Keywords: G.M. Ippolitov, A.I. Denikin, military history, military personalities, Civil war in Russia.