Klio #6 (162) 2020


Adamova N.E. (St. Petersburg). John Winthrop’s City upon a Hill: From metaphor to myth ......................................................................................................................................13

PhD in History, Associate Professor at the Faculty of international relations, St Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
+79045183272, n.adamova@spbu.ru

The paper examines the sermon A Modell of Christian Charity by John Winthrop (1630), written at the outset of ‘godly’ migration to New England. This sermon had hardly influenced Winthrop’s contemporaries, and was first published only two centuries later. However, in the second half of the 20th century, the sermon and the metaphor “city upon a hill” rapidly made their way up to the corpus of the key texts of American national self. Analysing Winthrop’s sermon in the context of contemporary sources (pamphlets, homilies, and correspondence concerning the emigration to New England), the paper explores its implied meanings: from being an argument in puritan controversy over the lawfulness of coming over to America – to the contemplations over the Christian love and its practical application. Paper also traces the 20th century transformation of a ‘city upon a hill’ into a myth – the change, which was triggered both by long-continued failure to understand the Puritan discourse, as well as by political spirit of the Cold War.
Keywords: Winthrop, Model of Christian Charity, New England, Massachusetts, Great migration, sermon, puritanism, covenant, mission, American exceptionalism.

Andreev A.А., Kopaneva D.D. (St. Petersburg). The first letter from Shah Abbas II on free trade law for Russian merchants ...................................................................................20

PhD in History, Saint Petersburg University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
E-mail: a.a.andreev@spbu.ru

candidate of historical sciences, senior
Lecturer, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University
7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St Petersburg, Russia, 199034
E-mail: st036379@spbu.ru

The research is devoted to the introduction into the scientific circulation of the translation of a letter from Shah Abbas II on the right of free trade for Russian merchants in the state of Safavids. The document is dated 1647 and reflects the conditions of Russian-Iranian relations in the second half of the 1640s. The western and northeastern borders of Iran were then in relative safety, which contributed to the development of trade and the growth of state welfare. Having overcome the consequences of the Time of Troubles, the Russian kingdom tried to conduct active trade not only with Iran but also with the countries of Central Asia. The letter itself from Shah Abbas II appeared under the influence of random circumstances. The embassy of A. Gribov was initially sent in transit through Iran to the Bukhara Khanate. Since there was a war between khan and his son in the latter, Shah Abbas II ordered the tsar’s ambassador to arrive in Isfahan. At the same time, a courier was sent from Farabod to the Russian Tsar with a letter in which the shah explained why he had detained the ambassador and his people.
Keywords: Russian-Iranian relations, Safavids, Abbas I, Mikhail Fedorovich, publication of sources, credit, treasury.

Skrydlov A.Yu. (St. Petersburg). Pages of Russian Archeography History: On the century of the Commission for Count M.M. Speransky’s Essays, Documents and Letters Publication.....................................................................................................................................24

PHd in History, Head of the Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Scientific Institutions History
St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science and Technology, RAS
199034, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb, 5.
Email: askrydlov@gmail.com

Mikhail М. Speransky’s heritage began to be studied by archeographers in the second half of the 19th century. Reformer’s works attracted researchers’ attention because Speransky was considered as a symbol of liberal undertakings during Alexander I reign. That transformation experience was in demand during the Great Reforms period. The scientific community of historians overcame censorship restrictions and start the publishing of Speransky’s most significant projects at the turn of the 19-20th century. Thus, the prerequisites for a large-scale scientific project appeared. The next step was the preparation and publication of M.M. Speransky’s complete works. To implement that project the largest experts on Russian history formed the Commission under the leadership of Academician A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky in 1916. The article examines the main activities of the Commission, such as preparing a catalog of Speransky’s manuscripts, creating uniform rules for their description and copying, compiling a list of archives, preliminary publication of manuscripts, and scientific researches. From 1916 to 1919 the Commission went through the core aspects of the project: the establishment of an organizational center with the support of the Academy of Sciences, which financed publications and established contacts with state and public institutions; creation of the scientific team that worked on a common research program; periodical preparation; young scientists’ training. The Commission worked during the revolutionary crisis period and its activities were interrupted after the chairman’s death in 1919. Practical and methodological results of that work have retained relevance.
Keywords: Mikhail M. Speransky, Commission for collected works publication, archaeographic research, Alexander S. Lappo-Danilevsky, history of science.

Zharsky A.P., Mokhorov G.A. (St. Petersburg). Vistula-Oder (from the memories of an Artillery Officer)......................................................................................................................30

Candidate of military Sciences,
corresponding member of RARAN,
senior researcher of the Institute of (VI) of the Military Academy of the General staff of the armed forces.
191055, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Palace Square, Building 10.
E-mail: galant2028@mail.ru

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Disciplines Department Military Academy of the Signal Corps named after S. M. Budjonny
194064, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Tihoreckiy Ave., 3.
E-mail: g.mohorov@gmail.com
(from the memories of an Artillery Officer)

The article tells about the hostilities of the 58th Infantry Division the 21st Rifle Corps of 3rd Guards Army (which was located in the direction of the main attack of the 1st Ukrainian Front) in both Sandomierz-Silesian operation, conducted by the front in the framework of the Vistula-Oder (January 12-February 03, 1945), and its logical continuation – the Lower Silesian offensive operation of the 1st Ukrainian Front (February 08-24, 1945). The basis for the preparation of materials for publication is the notes left by Mokhorov Anatoliy Ivanovich, who himself was a participant in these events as commander of the 2nd Division of the 244th Artillery Regiment, which was part of the said compound. For the heroism and courage shown in these battles, Captain A.I. Mokhorov was recommended to the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Keywords: Vistula-Oder Offensive, Sandomierz bridgehead, German defensive lines between the Vistula and Oder, combat deployments, density of artillery fire

Vaschuk R.I. (St. Petersburg). Russian secular historiography of the Byzantine Hesychasm in 1871-1917..............................................................................................................37

1st year postgraduate student,
Leningrad State University A.S. Pushkin
Russia, Pushkin, 196605, St. Petersburg highway 10
E-mail: vashchukr@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the views of Russian, secular scholars of theology and Byzantinists on the problem of Byzantine hesychasm. Various points of view of this phenomenon are considered in the period of the formation of national Byzantine studies and the history of the Church. The work is compared with a later period of the domestic historiography of Byzantine Hesychasm, revealing inaccuracies in the history of the study of Byzantine Hesychasm in its initial period. The proposed work uses an interdisciplinary approach, provides an analysis of the views of authors from different fields of humanitarian knowledge: history, theology, religious philosophy. The psycho-historical method is used, which helps to realize some phenomena in socio-political history, cultural anthropology, as well as mass movements of a religious nature. When using the psycho-historical method, it is important to consider that often the attention of society is shifted from rational knowledge to the emotional side of thinking. As a result of the study, it is concluded that it is necessary to study and correctly understand the patristic theological tradition to explain the motives that guided the people we studied in various theological areas and their views.
Keywords: Russian historiography, Byzantine hesychasm, theology, Byzantine studies, the history of the Church, philosophy of history, cultural history.

Kandaurova T.N. (Moscow). Russian military settlements of the XIX century in the context of quantitative history...............................................................................................42

Senior Researcher, Department of History and Theory of Culture, Russian State University for the Humanities
125047, Miusskaya Square, 6, building 1, Moscow
E-mail: tanikand@mail.ru

The article presents the experience and results of the analysis of a mass sources complex on the history of Russian military settlements of the XIX century, including family lists, statistical atlases, and descriptions, as well as materials of annual reporting. The use of quantitative history methods allowed to analyze in more detail the economic and socio-cultural state of the cavalry settled districts and regional military settlements at different stages of their functioning, the state at the micro-and macro-levels, to determine the dynamics of individual indicators of the agricultural sector, to re-evaluate the importance of military settlements institution for the socio-economic and cultural development of the country. The availability of consolidated data on construction allowed us not only to analyze the transformation of cultural landscapes of regimental settlement districts and settlements but also to identify the ratio of shared construction by administrative, economic, social, cultural, and household sectors. For all the main economic and socio-cultural characteristics, there are multidirectional trends at the intra-industry, intra-regional and interregional levels. When working with statistical sources, the author used methods of descriptive statistics, correlation, variation, cluster, and comparative analysis, as well as a method for constructing trend models based on the analytical alignment of dynamic series of socio-economic and socio-cultural indicators.
Keywords: military settlements, military setllment economy, economic system lodged regimental districts, the building sector of military settlements, the mass of statistical sources, statistical models, methods of quantitative analysis, quantitative history.

Tomilin A.R. (Moscow). British factor in Russian war planning 1876-1877 ..............55

Post-graduate student of Moscow State University.
Russia, Moscow, Lomonosof road. Building 1. Corp. Б. Cab. 965.
E-mail: alexgranjer1894@gmail.com

This article examines the reports of Russian military intelligence and its influence on the planning of the war with Turkey in 1876-1877. The Eastern crisis of 1875-1876 threatened the integrity of the Ottoman Empire and threatened to change the current situation in the Balkans. Great Britain was ready to defend the integrity of Turkey by force of arms. The factor of possible armed intervention by great Britain became known in the Russian General staff, thanks to the reports of the military agent in London, Major General of the Retinue A. p. Gorlov. His reports served as the basis for the memos of the chief of the office of the Military Scientific Committee, Lieutenant General N. N. Obruchev, about the plan of war with Turkey, which predetermined the planning of the war itself. The chronology of this article covers the years 1875-1877, the beginning and development of the Eastern crisis, to show the consistent evolution of Britain’s plans for Russia. The research was based on reports from the Russian military agent in London, major General A. p. Gorlov, and memos from Lieutenant General N. N. Obruchev.
Keywords: Russo-Turkish war 1877-1878, Great Britain, military intelligence, war planning, general A.P.Gorlov, general N.N. Obruchev.

Samorodov D.P. (Sterlitamak). Timeless academic history. Formation of the Soviet historical thought in the 20 – the beginning of the 30s XX century and the approval of Marxism (organizational-academic aspect) .................................................................................61

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of the Fatherland and Methods of Teaching History of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University
Russian Federation, Republic of Bashkortostan,
Sterlitamak, Lenin Avenue, 49
E-mail: gnera@mail.ru; +79177551312

The article discusses the controversial and difficult process of formalizing the academic and other organizational foundations of Soviet history as a science in the initial period of Soviet power. It is shown that throughout the 20s and the beginning of the 30s XX century science, history was in the “pen” and was replaced by social studies (Marxist sociology); in a “pure” form (that is, using specific factual material), history at that time was not taught in universities and schools. Only since the mid-30s with the filing of I.V. Stalin is recovering the legal status of history as an important humanitarian science on the methodological basis of Marxism-Leninism. The essence of historical materialism, the philosophical component of Marxism, and the doctrine of changes in socioeconomic formations are revealed. Attention is focused on the formation of a new system of training professional-pedagogical and scientific personnel at universities, first in the format of faculties of social sciences, later in the form of revived history faculties, and the role of new strictly academic centers, the Institute of the Red Professors and research institutes are also emphasized. It raises the question of the “Academic Affairs” of 1929-1931 and the circumstances of the defeat of the Leningrad historical school, when many prominent academic historians were repressed. An ambiguous assessment of the processes under consideration is substantiated with the identification of truly positive results of the new (Soviet) system of historical knowledge.
Keywords: historical materialism, historical faculties, Institute of the Red Professors, RANION, M.N. Pokrovsky, E.V. Tarle, People’s Commissariat for Education, Marxism, bourgeois professors.

Klimova A.А. (Moscow). Relations between the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) and the Antiochian Patriarchate in 1946-1948................................................69

A post-graduate student of the History Department
of the Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov,
a lead specialist of the State Archive
of the Russian Federation.
125424, Russian Federation, Moscow,
Stratonavtov passage 13 build. 1.
E-mail: u_naskitty@mail.ru

This article is devoted to the study of the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) and the Patriarchate of Antioch in 1946–1948. Particular attention is paid to the life of the Russian community in Beirut and the resumption of the activity of the Moscow Patriarchate’s metochion under the jurisdiction of the Antioch Orthodox Church. Based on archival documents first introduced into scientific circulation, the author analyzes the process of restoring the international relations of the Moscow Patriarchate with the Antioch Patriarchate after the Second World War. The main plot of the article is revealed around the process of preparing the appointment of a representative from the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) in Beirut and about his activities in this period. The article also touches on the history of the All-Orthodox Conference in Moscow in 1948 and the degree of its influence on further relations between the Churches.
Keywords: The Russian Orthodox Church, The Antiochian Orthodox Church,  The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, Lebanon, Beirut, Archimandrite Simeon (Nikitin), Patriarch Alexy (Simansky), Patriarch Alexander III (Tahan) of Antioch.

Pokyilyuk A.V., Nikiforov A.L. (St. Petersburg). The activities of the White Guard underground in Petrograd at the end of 1917-1919.................................................................76

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Professor, Department of History,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin;
196605 St. Petersburg, Petersburg highway, 10, lit. A.
+ 7-911-929-41-55; e-mail: viktorovich_1948@yandex.ru

candidate of historical sciences, associate professor,
Associate Professor, Department of History,
Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin)
196605 St. Petersburg, Petersburg highway, 10, lit. A.
+ 7-962-695-29-25; e-mail: ratibor76@mail.ru

The presented scientific article reflects the process of the formation of the anti-Bolshevik underground in Petrograd against the background of the events of the Russian Civil war. Despite the extensive historiography devoted to the confrontation between the Cheka and the white guard special services, the scientific analysis of events, facts, and personalities of the participants in the struggle of the “invisible front” was carried out tendentiously and directly. However, as evidenced by the history of the world, the tragedy of the Civil war not only has its specifics in each country where there was a fratricidal struggle but also characterized by a deep social crisis, political and economic backgrounds, complex motivations of participants and the rapidly changing mass psychology of people caught in extreme circumstances. This article reveals the motives and forms of participation of many officers of the tsarist army in underground anti-Bolshevik organizations that operated both in the red Army and in the rear institutions of the young Soviet Republic. The article analyzes the structure and activities of the largest underground organization “all-Russian national center”, which had an extensive network of cells in various cities of Russia, including Petrograd. Based on the conducted research, the reasons for failures in the activities of underground white guard organizations in Petrograd at the end of 1917-1919 were identified.
Keywords: officer corps, Civil war, underground organizations, terror, armed rebellion, Volunteer movement, Cheka.

Nikonov K.O. (Khabarovsk). Historical experience in the formation of the Gendarme police station of the China eastern railway аt the beginning of the 20th century................84

Senior researcher, research department, Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
680030, Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Kazarmenny lane 15
Tel.: 89141500545, E-mail: kirnikonov@gmail.com

The article describes the process of forming the Provisional Gendarme Police Directorate of the China-East Railway (CER). Its functions, responsibilities, structure and staffing are considered. The boundaries of the activities of each department are determined. Attention is paid to studying the peculiarities of the interaction of the gendarmes with the local population and the reorganization of the Provisional Gendarme Police Directorate after the Russo-Japanese War. The proposals of the head of the Gendarmerie Police Directorate of the CER Railways, Colonel Leonid Yakovlevich Gorgopa, regarding organizational and staff activities of the Office entrusted to him are of interest. The author comes to the conclusion that the historical experience of the Gendarmerie police department of the CWC is a promising direction for further comprehensive study.
Keywords: Russian Far East, Manchuria, Port Arthur, Russo-Japanese War, gendarmes, police service, functions, structure, staffing, disbandment.

Ivanov V.E. (Vladivostok). Militia bodies of the Primorsky Region in 1985–1991: historiographical review................................................................................................................90

Post graduate student of the Department of History of the Far East Federal University
690091, Primorsky Region, Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
89249426948; E-mail:vikenty1994@mail.ru

The article describes literature on the history of internal affairs bodies in the period 1985–1991. The main directions of research are summarized, their periodization is carried out, the general description of works of both all-Russian and Far Eastern scientists is given. The author concludes that the period 1985-1991 is not sufficiently studied in studies on the history of law enforcement agencies, historiography needs further expansion and replenishment, issues of politics, economy and social sphere of the period of restructuring are represented both in the works of contemporaries of the studied events and professional historians.
Keywords: scientific research, study prospects, historiography, militia, restructuring, Primorsky Region, Far East, Russia.

Rodin D.V. (Moscow). In search of security in Central Europe: «Central European Locarno» and Danube Federation in 1928 ...............................................................................97

Junior Researcher, Department of History,
Moscow State University named after Lomonosov
119192, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27, building 4.
E-mail: enigma9307@mail.ru

The article discusses the foreign policy initiatives of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia E. Benesh in 1928 related to the promotion of the ideas of the «Central European Locarno» and the «Danube Federation». The goal of these initiatives was to ensure the security of Czechoslovakia and to strengthen its positions in Central Europe by reaching a political agreement between the countries of Little Entente, Hungary and Austria based on recognition of the post-war borders, arbitration, and refusal of war or the creation of a single customs zone with the participation of the heirs of the Habsburg monarchy. However, the ideas of E. Benesh did not find support either in Austria or in Hungary: for the first, this was tantamount to abandoning a potential Anschluss, for the second, refusing to revise the hated Treaty of Trianon. E. Benesh was unable to find support in the UK and France due to them being occupied with problems in other regions. He also met with resistance in the face of Berlin and Rome, who saw in the ideas of E. Benesh a threat to their attempts to strengthen influence in Central Europe. The Czechoslovak Minister was forced to abandon his ideas in favor of returning to block politics.
Keywords: international relations, Central Europe, Czechoslovakia’s foreign policy, E. Benesh, Locarno Conference, Central European Locarno, Danube Federation, League of Nations, Little Entente.

Zhigulskaya D.V. (Moscow). The development of the idea of national identity in Turkey in the 1920s and 1930s................................................................................................106

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Deputy Director of ISAA Moscow State
University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Senior Researcher, Department of Oriental History
Institute of Oriental Studies RAS
125009, Russia, Moscow, ul. Mokhovaya, 11, building 1
+7 967 978-34-82, e-mail: dvzhigulskaya@gmail.com

The issue of national identity is inseparably linked to the history of republican Turkey. On 29th October 1923, a new nation-state known as the Turkish Republic arose from the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire. In the years that followed, the country passed through a process of physical and political restructuring, establishing a secular regime. Before the promulgation of the republican system, various ideological narratives had competed with one another, and it was only with the rise of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk to the power that Turkish nationalism became an inalienable component of the official state ideology – Kemalism. The article explores how the idea of national identity developed during the 1920s and 1930s until Atatürk’s death in 1938. Special consideration is given to the reforms of the early republican government, aimed at forming a new civic identity. This process was greatly complicated by the fact that civic identity (marked by the emergence of a new nation-state with a unified territory) and national identity (of which the Turkish language was the key marker) did not always coincide. Thus, Article 88 of the 1924 Constitution drew a dividing line between citizenship and nationality: all residents of the country, irrespective of religious and ethnic affiliation, were declared Turks by citizenship. The ambivalence inherent in the very concept of Turkish civic (national) identify has repeatedly manifested itself in the struggle between sub-identities throughout the history of the Turkish Republic and remains relevant to this day.
Keywords: Turkey, nationalism, nation building, civic identity, Kemalism, secularism, pan-Turkism, Atatürk.

Bikerniece A. (St. Petersburg). The Youth Orchestra of the European Economic Community role in cultural policy evolution: an example of China tour of 1984.......................111

Master of International Relations, PhD Student of School of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University
3rd year PhD student, SPSU, SIR (International Relations and Politics programme)
191060, Russia, St. Petersburg, Smolnogo st. 1/3, entr.8
E-mail: annaswan7733@gmail.com

The article examines the example of the Youth Orchestra of the EEC as a valuable cultural element and its tour to China and Hong Kong in 1984. Being a large-scale event at the time, the tour demonstrates specific difficulties that the community faced back in 1980s. These difficulties, such as budget formation, providing efficiency and workability of the events, became another factor of integration processes in Europe. Furthermore, successful preservation and development of the European Union Youth orchestra can be considered as an indicator of its value for cultural and identity policies. And the process of the tour in China organisation can be perceived as a reflection of more systemic processes undergoing in the European community. The documents from European Union archives used to fulfill the article.
Keywords: European Economic Community, Youth Orchestra of the European Economic Community, integration, cultural policy, European idea, tour in China.

Avizova А.К. (Shymkent, The Republic of Kazakhstan), Kamaldinov I.R. (Almaty, The Republic of Kazakhstan). Women’s jewelry and household and ritual items from the excavations of the Kuyuk-Mardan settlement................................................................................116

Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor, South Kazakhstan
Associate Professor of State University named after M. Auezov,
160012, The Republic of Kazakhstan, Shymkent, Tauke-Khan Ave., 5.
E-mail: aimanavizova@mail.ru

Research associate of Institute
of Archaeology named after A. Kh. Margulan,
050010, The Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk Ave., 44.
E-mail: kamaldinov-ilyar@mail.ru

The article deals with a set of finds of female jewelry and household and ritual items obtained from excavations of the Kuyuk-Mardan site in southern Kazakhstan. The authors carried out a detailed description of the finds and made a comparative comparison of them with the materials of the monuments of adjacent territories. Analysis and comparison of them with the materials of the monuments of neighboring regions allowed the authors to date the Kuyukmardan complex of finds of 3rd-5th centuries A.D. A set of jewelry and other small items made of metal and bone have direct analogies in synchronous burial complexes. Noteworthy is the monumentality of the building, the multi-meter brick mortgage in which it was walled up, as well as the numerous kinds of beads, amulets, bronze bib plates, and eyecups obtained during the dismantling of the brick bookmark. Based on this, the authors suggest that the ancient structure, with which the studied finds are associated, is not household nature.
Keywords: archaeology, amulets pendants, bronze mirrors, beads, bone hairpin, lockets, bib plates, eyecup plates.

Nigmatullina Z.F. (Ufa), Karacharova I.A. (Yekaterinburg), Procenko А.S. (Ufa). On the issue of conservation and restoration of museum items .............................................124

State budget institution Republican Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve «Ancient Ufa», museum keeper.
450077, Russian Federation, Ufa, Mustaya Karima St., 49.
e-mail: zilek77@rambler.ru

Sverdlovsk Regional Museum
of Local Lore named after O.E. Claere, restore.
620075, Sverdlovsk Region, Yekaterinburg, Lenin Avenue, 69/10
e-mail: ikaracharova@mail.ru

State budget institution Republican Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve «Ancient Ufa», researcher.
450077, Russian Federation, Ufa, Mustaya Karima St., 49
e-mail: anton.procenko@mail.ru

The article is aimed at popularizing and introducing into scientific circulation museum items from the archaeological collection of the historical and cultural museum-reserve “Ancient Ufa”. The work considers one of the unique finds from the object of cultural heritage, a monument of archeology of federal significance “Settlements Ufa-II” – a fragment of a charred birch bark box. This is the first experience of a young museum-reserve in the conservation and restoration of archeology items. The conservation and restoration of the museum piece from birch bark became possible in the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, where after removing soil contaminants from the item, reinforcing measures of a different nature were carried out. Restoration work allowed to open the texture of birch bark, more accurately consider the design of the box, and determine the technique of its manufacture. Thanks to the restoration, the identification of such characteristics of the box as the diameter of the bottom, the direction of the stitching seams, the fastening of the parts made it possible to find analogies in the collections of other museums in the country and pre-determine the life of the item.
Keywords: ancient settlement Ufa-II, Museum-reserve “Ancient Ufa”, birch bark box, archaeological excavations, Museum item, conservation, restoration.

Postnikova А.А. (Yekaterinburg). A memorial culture between memory and oblivion: a variety of interpretations or a crisis of the postmodern paradigm? ................................128


Candidate of sciences, senior research associate of the Ural Federal University, associate professor of the chair of general history of the Ural State Pedagogical University 620017, Russia, Yekaterinburg, Kosmonavtov Ave, 26.

For many years in the humanities, the dispute over the problems of historical memory, historical politics, creating diverse interpretations of the transmission of the past, has not failed. Against the background of this variety of terms and approaches, it is still possible to notice some similarities in the views of scientists with regard to individual methodological problems. As already noted, historians have gradually come to agree that transnational memory is an illusion created within historical politics, as a kind of act of not accepting responsibility for the past, but solely for the purposes of “mnemonic security.” Most historians also tend to believe that the memory of tragedy has a more unifying effect on society than the memory of triumph. In addition, both the process of forming diverse concepts of historical memory and the factors affecting its transformation have already become an important element of the memorial culture of European society.
Keywords: historical memory, oblivion, collective imaginary, post-modern.

Abramov A.V. (Moscow). Reflection of the events of the contemporary Russian history in the exposition of the Historical Park “Russia - My history” (Moscow) ...........................134

Assistant, Department of History of Social Movements and Political Parties, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, GSP-1, Lomonosovskiy Pr., 27, 4.
E-mail: andreyabramov1993@gmail.com

The events of the Russian history of the XX century remain extremely relevant for the Russian state and public agenda. At the same time, the greatest pride among Russians is caused by historical events that occurred during the period from 1945 to the present day. These facts make it relevant to analyze the phenomenon of contemporary Russian history and its museum representation, including expositions based on multimedia technologies. The article is dedicated to the image reflection of the events of the Russian history of 1945-2020 in the exposition of the multimedia Historical Park “Russia – My history” in Moscow. The author examines the content of this exhibition and determines the extent of its coverage and elaboration. The author also analyzes similar expositions in the top museums of Russia and shows general directions of museum representation of contemporary Russian history. The researcher also provides practical recommendations for the further development of the Historical Park’s exposition.
Keywords: Russian history, contemporary history, politics of memory, museology, multimedia technologies, museum exposition, The State Central Museum of Contemporary History of Russia, The State Museum of Political History of Russia, the Historical Park “Russia – My history”, “Russia – My history”.

Bedrik A.S., Ivasenko R.P. (St. Petersburg). Binary opposition M.S. Gorbachev – R.A. Reagan: historical and anthropological component of the destruction of the former USSR 143

Doctor of History, teacher
of the Department of pedagogy, psychology and translation studies
Saint Petersburg University of Management and Economics technologies
190103, Saint Petersburg, Lermontovsky PR, 44, Lit.A
e-mail: arnytrapp@gmail.com

Postgraduate student of the Department
of pedagogy, psychology and translation studies
Saint Petersburg University of Management and Economics technologies
190103, Saint Petersburg, Lermontovsky PR, 44, Lit.A
e-mail: ronald.dant@yandex.ru

The purpose of the research is to identify textual and contextual personal profiles of former Presidents Mikhail Gorbachev and Reagan, as well as the level of their impact on the national and international historical process. The article deals with various types of documentary sources – eyewitness accounts, memoirs of contemporaries, data from foreign informants, memoirists, and similar materials containing descriptive characteristics of the personal qualities and properties of Mikhail Gorbachev and R. A. Reagan. It is shown that the personal profiles of the first leaders of the great powers have a significant influence on their choice of social strategies and tactics of political behavior. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the originality of the research approach, which consists of the synthesis of value judgments of contemporaries about the personal qualities and properties of the top leaders of the former USSR and the present USA. The authors conclude that the crisis state of the modern historical process imposes increased demands on the socio-ethical and socio-psychological characteristics of the highest echelon of social leadership and administrative management.
Keywords: socio-creative potential of the people, social-ethical and socio-psychological characteristics, personal profiles of top state leaders, egocentrism, socio-political structure.

Magomedkhanov M.М. Bakanov A.V. (Makhachkala). In memory V.O. Klyuchevsky (scientist and teacher) ........................................................................................................150

D.Sc. (in History), Prof., Head of Dept. of Ethnography
The Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

Junior Researcher The Institute of History,
Archaeology and Ethnography of the
Daghestan Federal Research Centre of RAS
Russia, Makhachkala, M. Yaragskogo 75 st.

In domestic historiography, conventionally divided into imperial, Soviet, and modern, the name V.O. Klyuchevsky has a special position, and his rich scientific heritage continues to be relevant today. The scientist went through a very curious and full of many interesting events life path. All his life V.O. Klyuchevsky was completely devoted to the scientific and pedagogical activity, and it was in this field of every day, painstaking work, which was not aimed at receiving any dividends, world fame, recognition, and respect. Among the many scientific studies, the main thing of the researcher was his famous “Russian Course History ”, which best describes his original concept, which reveals the course of Russian history as an interdependent connection of events and eras. Certainly, the scientific research of V.O. Klyuchevsky is an integral part of both the all-Russian and the global cultural heritage. The “course of Russian history” is the edifying testament of the scientist to future generations, this is the confession of centuries.
Keywords: Russian historiography, V.O. Klyuchevsky, historical process, the concept of history, “The course of Russian history”, scientific and pedagogical activity, socio-political views.

Sleptsova T.V. (Moscow). Cooperation of N.K. Schilder with the military newspaper “Russian Disabled” (based on a review of memoirs of the French Brigadier General Count F.P. Segyur) ..........................................................................................................................161

candidate of history
Management Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia
Leading researcher of the Department for the study of the history of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation of the scientific center the Academy of Management of the Мinistry of Internal Affairs of Russia Russia, 125993, Moscow, Zoi and Alexander Kosmodemyanskikh st., 8
E-mail: slepzova@mail.ru

The article reveals Russian historian Nikolai Karlovich Schilder (1842-1902) collaborated with the military newspaper «Russian Invalid» on the example of his first publication. By the mid-1870s, N. K. Schilder had established himself as an experienced military historian-author of research articles, essays, notes, and reviews on engineering and Military Affairs. Therefore, in 1873, the Editorial Board of the military newspaper “Russian invalid” asked him for cooperation: to write a review of the memoirs of the French Brigadier General count Philippe Paul de Segur. Russian Russian readers were first introduced to the new edition of count F. p. Segur on the pages of the military newspaper «Russian invalid», and analyzed the importance of the issues he addressed, he noted that they contain «a lot of precious» definitions and characteristics about events and figures of the «times of the Consulate and the First Empire», a description of military campaigns, so the memoirs of F.P. Segur have great historical value.
Keywords: N.K. Schilder, P.P. Pezarovius, military newspaper “Russian Invalid”, F. P. Segur, E. I. Totleben, General Staff, Patriotic war of 1812, magazine Military Collection, Segur d’agesso, Napoleonic campaigns.

Izmozik V.S. (St. Petersburg). P.D. Erofeev – another classmate of P.L. Kapitsa.....166

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor at the Department of History and Regional Studies at the Bonch-Bruevich St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. Russia, 193232, St. Petersburg, Bolshevikov av., 22.
+7 (911) 941-0117. izmozik@mail.ru

The article is based on archival documents, introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. It is dedicated to the fate of a man, who was sincerely devoted to Soviet power but fell under the influence of British intelligence. P.D. Erofeev was a classmate of the future outstanding scientist P.L. Kapitsa at the Kronstadt real school. He was the eldest son of N.V. Petrovsky (Wolfson) from his first marriage. After graduating from the Faculty of Law of St. Petersburg University Erofeev in the fall of 1918 joined the Red Army, became a member of the RCP (b), an employee of the political department. His mother introduced him to the English intelligence officer P. Dux, to whom P.D. Erofeev transmitted information that did not matter much. It concerned the structure of Soviet enterprises, industrial relations, as well as some information about the Red Army. P.D. Erofeev sincerely regretted that he unwittingly turned out to be an informant of P. Dux and thought that he deserved severe punishment for his actions. In January 1920, by the verdict of the Board of the Petrograd Extraordinary Commission, he was shot.
Keywords: P.D. Erofeev, P.L. Kapitsa, Nadezhda V. Petrovskaya, D.D. Erofeev, A.A. Petrovskii, Paul Henry Dukes.

Viktorov М. (archpriest), PANISHEV A.L. (Sevastopol). Theological education in modern higher education as an existential necessity ........................................................171

Senior lecturer of the Department of Theology and religious studies»
Sevastopol state University
299053, Sevastopol, st. Universitetskaya, 33
ORCID 0000-0003-1274-8748
E-mail: alexeipl1980@mail.ru

candidate of philosophy, associate Professor, Professor RAE.
Associate Professor of theology and religious department of
Sevastopol state University
299053, Sevastopol, st. Universitetskaya, 33
ORCID 0000-0003-4327-1225
E-mail: alexeipl1980@mail.ru

This article is devoted to the introduction of theological disciplines in Russian universities. It is assumed that in modern conditions abstract thinking is very much in demand, which can develop most intensively in the field of theological disciplines. Modern science is filled with abstractions, which the scientist will be able to operate freely only if there is developed abstract thinking. Christianity, meanwhile, turns to abstractions, to categories that are thought outside the physical world. Therefore, even the training of specialists in programming should include a theological course. In addition to abstract thinking, theology contributes to the formation of a person’s personality, which for post-industrial society is the basic unit of social relations. Finally, theological courses contribute to the active development of the moral consciousness of people. All sorts of technical and financial opportunities outside the ethical norms become dangerous temptations for society, lead to new social risks and problems. Therefore, the intellectual growth of people should take place in parallel with their spiritual and moral development. Based on such arguments, it is concluded that it is necessary to include theological courses in the curricula of specialties mastered within the framework of higher education.
Keywords: theology, science, education, thinking.

Alieva L.V., Petrov G.V. (Pskov). Assignments on the history of the Great Patriotic War in the current model of the Final State Certification of Graduates.....................................175

PhD (history), docent,
associate professor at the department of Russian history
Pskov State University
180000, Pskov, pl. Lenin, house 2
E-mail: Zemkod1922@gmail.com;
ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4239-3207

master student at the department of Russian history,
Pskov State University
180000, Pskov, pl. Lenin, house 2
E-mail: petrovchild@gmail.com;
ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8779-7344

Introduction. The current model of the Final State Certification of the general education organizations graduates involves the Unified State Examination. The Unified State Examination in history includes tasks to test cross-subject knowledge. One of these tasks is Task 8 in Part 1 of the examination paper. This task is devoted to the history of the Great Patriotic War. The main skills and modus operandi tested within the task are the knowledge of the main facts, processes, and phenomena that characterize the integrity of the national and world history, the periodization of the world, and national history. Research methodology and methods. The research material consisted of the demonstration versions of test materials of the Unified State Examination in history, the Historical and Cultural Standard, Methodological recommendations for teachers, based on the analysis of typical errors (2016-2019), the Compendium of the Final State Certification results statistics, prepared by the Centre for Education Quality Assessment in the Pskov region (2016-2019). The following methods were used in the study: descriptive, comparative, analytical, generalizing, and historical. Research results. As the results of the Unified State Exam in history show, school graduates annually have difficulties in completing Task 8 in Part 1 of the examination paper. The statistics for 2016-2019 show a low level of cross-subject knowledge among school graduates. It is particularly significant that the graduates demonstrate poor knowledge of the events of the Great Patriotic war. Discussion of the results. The results of the study were discussed at a seminar with subject commission experts of the Unified State Exam in history. The discussion resulted in recommendations for students, which are presented in this article. The implementation of these recommendations will allow students to show a high level of cross-subject knowledge. Conclusion. Thus, based on the above, we can make a very simple and obvious conclusion – Task 8 in Part 1 of the Unified State Examination in history (like any other task) requires careful and thorough training on the part of graduates, as well as systematic and conscious work on the part of the teacher. The amount of information concerning the period of the Great Patriotic War is huge, difficult and diverse. However, with due diligence and attention to the most difficult points (tasks on the geography of the war), and taking into account the methodological recommendations and the mistakes of the USE participants of previous years, each graduate will be able to properly prepare, cope with this type of task confidently and show a decent result on the Unified State Exam.
Keywords: the Unified State Examination, the history of Russia, the world history, the Great Patriotic War, World War II, teaching methods, cross-subject knowledge.