Klio # 9 (141) 2018





Khabibulina R.Y. (Saint Petersburg). My disciples…………………………………………………………………13

RAISA YAKOVLEVNA KHABIBULINA — Ph.D. in History, 1950–1984 — Associate Professor of the Faculty of History, Leningrad State University named after Andrei Zhdanov.

Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibulina is one of the veterans of the national history and teachers of higher education. In August 2018 she celebrated her 96th birthday. She was a graduate of the historical faculty of the Leningrad State University in 1945. She prepared memories of her alma mater, where she not only studied but also taught for 1984. Her memories refer to her teachers — Academician Tarle, professors S.N. Valke, V.V. Mavrodine, A.V. Predtechensky, N.A. Kornatovsky, the rector of the Leningrad State University A.A. Voznesensky, as well as her students, among whom were the politician S.V. Stepashin, chairman of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg V.S. Makarov, President of the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan K. Ranjbar and many others.

Keywords: Raisa Yakovlevna Khabibulina, Ashgabat Pedagogical Institute, Leningrad State University named after Andrei Zhdanov, memories, historical faculty, history in high school.





Belgorodskaya L.V. (Krasnoyarsk). The concept of “a scientist of tsarist Russia” in the American and British popular science narrative of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century………………………………………………………….……28

LYUDMILA VENIAMINOVNA BELGORODSKAYA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Russian history, Siberian Federal University. 660062, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny pr., 79. E-mail: blv.kr@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of the images of Russian scientists of the pre-revolutionary period in American reference and encyclopedic publications and the popular science narrative of the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. The universal national and thematic publications, works on the history of science in Russia were studied. The comparative-historical, linguistic methods of analysis, methods of analyzing collective biographies used in prosopography were used. The personalities of scientists included in the glossaries of encyclopedias are established, the evolution of a change in the estimates of their achievements and scientific discoveries is traced. An analysis of Western ideas about the achievements of Russian scientists in the field of natural and social sciences is given. The correlation of the concepts “scientist”, “intelligentsia”, “inventor”, “pioneer” in the latest foreign publications is presented. The idea of Russian scientists in the mass historical consciousness of a large English-speaking readership was studied.

Keywords: imagology, prosopography, the image of Russian scientists, the Russian empire, American and British encyclopedias.





Shauchuk I.I. (Brest, Belarus). Personnel potential of the Institute of Belarusian Culture in 1925–1928: historiographical aspect……………………………………………………………………………………………………36

IHAR IVANOVICH SHAUCHUK — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of World History, Brest State University. 224022, Belarus, Brest, Tenistyi lane, 9. E-mail: ihar7@rambler.ru

The paper examines a theme that has not received special attention in historiography. Nevertheless, in a significant number of publications the personnel aspect of the first complex scholarly institution of Belarus of the contemporary history is still being addressed. It is shown that all authors for their assertions used data published by direct participants and witnesses of the scholarly and organizational events of the 1920s. The paper covers a considerable amount of archival materials and it proves that the significantly overestimated number of the researchers of the Institute of Belarusian Culture was of direct practical importance in the bureaucratic struggle for the creation of the Republican Academy of Sciences. Since 1928, when the issue of the creation of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences was positively solved, the statements of an incredibly large quantity of researchers of the Institute of Belarusian Culture stopped. It is concluded that the post-war researchers did not verify the information they used. Uncritically perceived data acquired a second life since the early 1970s, and they became an indisputable reality. Unfortunately, such a position of the researchers of the named problem is impossible to identify as permissible in the historiographical sense. The paper points to the urgent need for further professional research on this important issue.

Keywords: scholar, researcher, staff, personnel, full member, institution, historiography, Institute of Belarusian Culture, Belarusian Academy of Sciences.





Pozdeeva M.A. (Saint Petersburg). Benjamin Franklin and the Struggle for Freedom of the Press in the 18th Century: “Franklin’s Case”………………………………………………………………………………………………46

MARIIA AVKSENTYEVNA POZDEEVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya l., 5. E-mail: pozdeeva.m.a@yandex.ru

This paper is devoted to the personality of the famous American scientist, enlightener and statesman Benjamin Franklin and his active role in the achievement of the principal democratic liberties in the public life of Great Britain and the British colonies in North America. For this purpose the article provides a careful and detailed analysis of the interesting materials from Franklin’s “Autobiography” and numerous publications by the capital Russian newspaper “Saint Petersburg Records” in the 1730–1736 years. These historical sources revealed so-called “Franklin’s Case”, or the active participation of James and Benjamin Franklin and their contemporaries in the struggle for freedom of the press and the right to receive, use and spread some information as inalienable civil right of every person in the truly democratic society.

Keywords: British North America, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, England, Franklin, democratic liberties, freedom of the press, New England Courant, Saint Petersburg Records.



Soldatenko V.F. (Kyiv, Ukraine). Civil war in Ukraine: the first volleys – not the last victim…………………………………….50

VALERIY FEDOROVICH SOLDATENKO Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine, Chief researcher, I.F. Kuras Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv. Email: soldatenko.v.f@gmail.com

The article examines the effect of the military factor in the struggle for political power in Ukraine in 1917-1920, substantiates the thesis of the objective transformation of the revolutionary processes in a full-scale Civil war. Such an approach is objected to by a significant part of modern Ukrainian historians who believe that in those Ukraine, characterized by a high level of national consolidation, the absence of serious social contradictions, there were not enough good reasons for the internal split, which in practice simply did not leave place for the “undesirable” phenomenon. To confirm the proposed point of view, the author attempts to use scientific criteria to carefully analyze and evaluate the main determining political events that filled the life of Ukrainian society in December 1917 – January 1918. The General conclusion is that the real military clashes that took place then with the participation of tens of thousands of armed citizens, who were separated by real, not fictional fronts, bloody battles and numerous victims, were nothing more than a prologue, the real beginning of the Civil war, which then continued in Ukraine for three long years and brought suffering and losses to the nation. The unbiased resolution of the raised issue in the discussion seems to be fundamentally important for the formation of a deeply scientific concept of the history of Ukraine, which remains an urgent problem.

Keywords: Great Russian revolution, Ukrainian revolution, Central Rada, Soviet power, UNR, RSFSR, armed forces, conflict, Civil war, fighting, victims.


Pomelova Y.P. (Nizhni Novgorod). Ideological foundations of religious policy during the presidency of Hu Jintao…………..69

YULIA PAVLOVNA POMELOVA — Postgraduate student, Department of Oriental languages and linguoculturology, Institute of International Relations and World History, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 603116, Russian Federation, Nizhny Novgorod, Mosckovskoe schosse, 29A–108. E-mail: sup.nn@mail.ru

The study deals with the historical development of religious policy of the PRC during the first decade of the 21st century. On the surface, religious policy in China may appear contradictory. On the one hand, the Chinese government maintains restrictions and suppress independent religious organizations. On the other, the Constitution guarantees religious freedom. The Chinese government supports the staging of religious festivals, reconstruction of historic temples, and sponsors Chinese Muslims to visit Mecca. In fact, both tendencies define the religious policy that seeks to establish firm political control over religious organizations, while visibly integrating religion into nation-building discourses. This same policy impulse applies to the definition of illegal and legal religions. Within the framework of “harmonious society” creation and establishment of morality, the government more frequently applies to Confucianism, which has been identified as the essence of Chinese civilization and a religion that was central throughout China’s long history.

Keywords: China, history of the PRC, national identity, religious policy, Confucianism, harmonious society, morality, traditional culture.





Sergeev A.V. (Saint Petersburg). Princes Pozharsky in the Russian State of the XVI–XVII centuries: political activity and land tenure……………………………………………………………………………………………………75

ANTON VADIMOVICH SERGEEV — Ph.D. in History, Head of Department, Institute of Industrial Safety, Labor Protection and Social Partnership. 190098, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Konnogvardeiskiy bul., 19. E-mail: sergeev1967@inbox.ru

This article is devoted to determining the degree of participation in political events, the dynamics of social status, the number and nature of land tenure in the XVI–XVII centuries one of the names of the branch of Starodub Rurikovich – Princes Pozharsky. The author considered it his task not only to clarify the composition of the surname, supplement the biographies of individual princes, but also to ascertain the origin of the incorrect information about them contained in the «Russkaya rodoslovnaya kniga» A.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky, as it continues to be used by researchers. Evolution of the social status of Pozharsky from the secondary in XVI to the paramount in the XVII century shows that the seniority in the “pedigree ladder” was an essential, but not a determining factor in the social situation, which depended more on the success of the career, primarily military. In the case of Pozharsky, this evolution was largely due to the political activities of Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich during the Time of Troubles. Accordingly, the change in the social position changed the land ownership of the family. In the XVI century Pozharsky had small fiefdoms, mainly in the “patrimonial nest”, as well as estates. In the XVII century D.M. Pozharsky was among the largest landowners of the state. The total size of his possessions has grown more than 15 times.

Keywords: Tsar Court, Starodub Princes, social status, surname, service, pedigree, land tenure.


Benda V.N. (Saint Petersburg).The purpose of various kinds and contents of “sworn promises” and “oath of allegiance”, used in the post-Peter time of the 18th century…………………………………………88

VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH BENDA — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of History Department, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin. 196605, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse 10. 188300, Russian Federation, Leningrad region, Gatchina, ul. Gagarina 16-4. E-mail: bvn.1962@mail.ru

Issues related to the process of developing and using texts of various kinds of “sworn promises” and “oath of allegiance”, as well as the ritual (order) to bring them or their bringing by various categories of people in different situations during the 18th century in the Russian Empire, are widely displayed in the national historiography. Based on the demand for historical experience in the formation of positive moral standards and qualities of a citizen and a warrior, and the importance that the leadership of the state and the military command attached to the ritual of taking the oath and its provisions, the topic of this study is quite relevant. The article, on the basis of a wide range of archival and other sources, attempts to systematize and expand the already available information on this issue. Some materials from archival and other sources used by the author in this work, for the first time introduced into scientific circulation. The author focuses on the fact that instilling a sense of loyalty to the oath was and can be considered one of the most effective forms of educational process for all those who were in the military or public service.

Keywords: 18th century, Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna, Catherine II, “sworn promises”, “oath of allegiance”, education, moral qualities.


Dianova E.V. (Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia). The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in assessment of the Russian cooperators…………………………………………………………………………………………………96

ELENA VASILYEVNA DIANOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of National History, Institute of History, Political and Social Sciences, Petrozavodsk State University. 185910, Russian Federation, Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk, Lenina Pr., 33. E-mail: elena-dianowa@yandex.ru

In the article the attitude of the Russian cooperators to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is considered. The brochures by S.L. Maslov and N.P. Oganovsky which have been published by the Central association of flax workers are used as a source. Also, the materials published in the “Voronezhsky kooperator”, “Mirskoye delo”, “Izvestiya Centralnogo Tovarishchestva lnovodov” and “Kooperativnaya zhizn” magazines (Moscow), “zvestiya Yaroslavskogo kreditnogo soyuza kooperativov”, “Petrogradskii kooperator”, “Severnyi khozyain” (Vologda), “Trudovoe khozyaistvo” (Bezhetsk, the Tver province) are introduced for scientific use for the first time. On the basis of the analysis of media texts the position of their authors, figures of the Russian cooperation, is shown, the assessment of negative consequences of the contract of the Soviet Russia with Germany given by them of March 3, 1918 (loss of territories, decline in population, “death” of a land reform, reduction of industrial and agricultural production, curtailment of domestic market and foreign trade) is revealed. The statements of the Russian cooperators about the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk shows not only rejection of policy of territorial concessions, but also anticipation of negative results of a foreign policy of Bolsheviks.

Keywords: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk cooperative magazines, brochures, contract consequences, industry, agriculture, trade, cooperation.





Filinov A.V. (Moscow). Social and economic policy of the Soviet leadership in the Far East in the Manchurian Crisis (September 1931 — March 1935)……………………………………………………………………104

ANDREY VLADIMIROVICH FILINOV — Applicant of the Department of history of Russia of the 20th–21st cent., Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27–4. E-mail: fiann@inbox.ru

On the basis of an integrated approach to the consideration of the internal political situation against the background of the difficult foreign policy situation (the Manchurian crisis of 1931 – 1935), and based on unpublished archival materials, the author analyzes the main aspects of the socio-economic activity of the Soviet leadership in the Far East at the specified time. Among the scientific methods used in the work, the fundamental importance of the principle of historicism, involving consideration of all known facts in the form of a complex process of their appearance and development, in direct connection with certain characteristics inherent in this case, the USSR of the first half of the 1930s. In the course of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that such areas as agriculture, migration and resettlement, supply policy had a pronounced military mobilization orientation, which largely explains the problems in these areas, which were reflected in the various conflicting social sentiments of the population of the Far East.

Keywords: agriculture, collectivization, Special Collective Farm Corps, repressions, resettlement, migration, prisoners, special settlers, supplies, public mood.


Sazhin D.P. (Saint Petersburg). System of material stimulation of teachers’ work in 1950–1960 (on the sample of the Gorkovsky region)………………………………………………………………………………………113

DMITRII PAVLOVICH SAZHIN — Applicant on Ph.D. in History, Saint Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7–9. E-mail: d.sazhin2010@yandex.ru

In this article an attempt to explore the problem of improvement of material stimulation of teachers’ labour in RSFSR in 1950–1960s on the example of one of the regions was realized. In the observed period the state was increasing salary for all the teachers’ categories almost at the same time. However, it was necessary not to let leveling in the estimating of teachers’ work. While making a decision about material stimulation such important indicators were taken as education level, length of pedagogical activity, type of school where the teacher worked, governmental awards, rank “Honoured teacher”, class supervision and etc. Changings in material stimulation of teachers’ labour weren’t worked out and justified enough. It decreased differentiation in approach to labour compensation of different categories of pedagogical employers and hasn’t led to desired increase of motivation in their working practice.

Keywords: teachers’ social group, social status, material stimulation, comprehensive school, status factor, post salary, methodic of calculation of salary, teaching employment period, level of education.


Vozhakova M.S. (Moscow). The Specifics of the Conversion Narrative (on the Example of Protestants of the Altai Republic)…………………………………………………………………………………………121

MARIA SERGEEVNA VOZHAKOVA — Postgraduate student, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119192, Russian Federation, Moscow, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 27–4. E-mail: maniavozhakova@yandex.ru

The article deals with the features of the conversion narrative on the example of informal interviews with Protestants of the Altai Republic. Conversion narrative is one of the types of religious narrative that tells us about conversion to religion. The author analyzes the features of the structure of the narrative and its characteristics on the base of her field material. Conversion narratives of Protestants in the Republic of Altai fit perfectly into the structure of the narrative (introduction, orientation, transmission of the sequence of events, evaluation of what happened, resolution, code), described in the literature on the anthropology and sociology of conversion. In such stories, the life episode (“crisis, turning point”) that directly led to conversion is vividly marked, the believers reconstruct their biography, and one-moment events related to faith are retold. Moreover, the conversion narrative has certain goals and functions that depend on the characteristics of the listener (connected to didactic purposes, evangelization, creation and maintenance of collective identity). It is also possible to highlight the regional specifics of conversion narratives. In this case, it is the motive of the ratio of ethnic and religious and the importance of its allocation in the narrative of the narrator.

Keywords: religious conversion, religious narrative, conversion narrative, Protestantism, peoples of southern Siberia, ethnic identity, religious identity.





Postnikova А.A. (Yekaterinburg). Minsk in 1812: between Russia and France……………………………125

АLENA ALEKSANDROVNA POSTNIKOVA — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher, Ural Federal University, Associate Professor of the Department of General History, Ural State Pedagogical University. 620017, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Kosmonavtov Pr., 26. E-mail: alina33_07_87@mail.ru

The Minsk department during the Russian Campaign of 1812 played one of key roles in Napoleon’s plans. The French believed that the locals who were eager for release from oppression of Russians would support Great Army. At the beginning of the Russian campaign the French leaders have created a certain illusion, considering that Poles were ready to do anything for the sake of freedom of the state. All policy of the French-Polish government was based on this representation. Despite the fact that the efforts of the Minsk Commission showed a desire to enlist the support of the local Polish population, it, in turn, expected a quieter life without taxes and sacrifices in the name of Napoleon. The French-Polish government, being guided only by the interests of Poles, didn’t assume how deep were cross-cultural and social contradictions in the Belarusian society. The leadership of the Minsk Department, demonstrating honesty and efficiency in establishing order in the given territory, faced many obstacles, which, despite all the efforts, it failed to overcome.

Keywords: Russian Campaign, occupation, cross-cultural interaction, Great Army.


Abdullaev Y.S., Lobanov V.B., Gomon K.A. (Saint Petersburg). The Struggle for International Recognition of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918…………………………………………………………132

YASYN SAHIB OGLY ABDULLAEV — Student of the Department of the History of Peoples of the CIS Countries, Institute of History, St. Petersburg State University. 199034, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9. E-mail: ragiev@list.ru

VLADIMIR BORISOVICH LOBANOV — Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Department of Social and Political Sciences, Department of Natural Sciences and Humanitarian Education, St. Petersburg State Forest Technical University. 194021, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Institutsky per., 5. E-mail: lobanov19772009@yandex.ru

KONSTANTIN ANDREEVITCH GOMON — Postgraduate student, Humanitarian Faculty, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. 190000, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Bolshaya Morskaya St., 67. E-mail: kupigriliato@yandex.ru

The main purpose of this study is the analysis of the foreign policy relations of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) with the key political actors in the South Caucasus – Britain, Germany, the Ottoman Empire and the forces of the White Movement (represented by the Volunteer Army) – in the context of the struggle for its international recognition in 1918. The article is attempted to trace the development of the diplomatic activity of Azerbaijani politicians from the moment of the formation of the Republic in May 1918 and up to the beginning of the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, to evaluate the results achieved by them in this field. The authors has come to conclusion that the ADR succeed in changing its orientation in international relations from the Central Powers to the Entente in the end of 1918. At the same time, recognition of Azerbaijani independence was received only from Turkey, but «de facto». First negotiations with the Volunteer Army and Allies to build a single anti-Bolshevik front did not end well because of mutual contradictions between the parties. The work is grounded on a wide basis of sources: documentary materials from Azerbaijani and Russian archives, published documents and resolutions, memories of described events participants.

Keywords: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920); Ottoman Empire; Great Britain; Volunteer Army; Battle of Baku; Mammad Hasan Hajinski; Alimardan Topchubashov; Anton Denikin; international relationships; foreign policy.


Romanova E.N. (Yakutsk). Yakut emigrants in China: (1920–1940s)………………………………………140

EKATERINA NAZAROVNA ROMANOVA — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Researcher, Department of Archaeology and Ethnography, Institute of Humanitarian Researchers and Problems of Small Peoples of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 677007, Russian Federation, Yakutsk, Petrovskogo St., 1. E-mail: e_romanova@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the historical interpretation of the Yakut emigration in the era of wars and revolutions, namely, the adaptation of the Yakut colony of emigrants in China as a kind of social and cultural phenomenon, which is an inseparable part of Russian emigration, but remains a white spot in the history of Yakutia. The research is aimed at studying the “Yakut world” in Harbin, reconstructing the landscape of the “ideas” and “experiences” of the Yakut intelligentsia, for which a label “the enemy of the Yakut people” was fixed for a long time in the national history of the Sakha people. Once in a foreign land, they were deleted from historical memory, and their names were forgotten. The organizational core of the Yakut emigration in China was concentrated on creating an online intellectual community based on the unification of all Yakut emigrants who found themselves in Japan, Europe, and America.

Keywords: Yakut emigration, national intelligentsia, adaptation, landscape of the “ideas” and “experiences”, ethnic identity, social organization, activities.


Mirilashvili G.S. (Saint Petersburg). Oil aspect of the Soviet-Iranian relations…………………………145

GABRIEL SHABATAEVICH MIRILASHVILI — Postgraduate student, Saint Petersburg State University. 191040, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Ligovsky Prospect, 44–429. E-mail: mirilash@yandex.ru

Iran is a strategically important region, where the interests of the leading players of world politics intersect. The article is devoted to the consideration of the difficult and contradictory process of development of relations between the USSR and Iran in the 1920–1940s, as well as the analysis of factors that contributed to the longstanding confrontation between countries. The author also made an attempt to disclose the reasons for cooling and renewal of the partnership between them, dwelling on the oil sphere of cooperation, which is one of the poorly studied areas in Soviet-Iranian relations. At the beginning of the 20th century, Iran was a “field of struggle” for world players, for whom the presence in Persia was an important geopolitical task. The author pays special attention to issues of obtaining concessions for exploration and production of oil in the northern provinces of Iran.

Keywords: USSR, Iran, oil, concessions, World War II.





Grinev A.M. (Moscow). To the question of the so-called “pre-level layer” of the Nerevsky excavation site…………………149

ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH GRINEV — Postgraduate student, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 119991, Russian Federation, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, B-921. E-mail: amgrinev@mail.ru

Study of the “pre-level layer” of the Nerevsky site is one of the most important problems of the archaeological investigation of Early Medieval Novgorod for many decades. This issue is connected to the questions of the origin of Novgorod, the time of its settlement and dates of several groups of objects. This research attempts to resolve this problem. The first part of the article is devoted to the appearance of the term “pre-level layer” and to the development of approaches to its study. The second part criticizes the most of the theses of the previous investigations. The absence of the cultural deposits, formed before the appearance of the first layers of building in this part of Novgorod, is proved due to the getting of new data about dates of mass finds in the oldest layers of the Nerevsky site, making of the reconstruction of the initial relief of the Nerevsky End at the moment of its settlement and analysis of field documentation.

Keywords: old Russian archaeology, Early Medieval Novgorod, Nerevsky End, settlement of Novgorod, pre-level layer, Novgorod’s hand-made pottery, reconstruction of initial relief, landscape archaeology.





Ershov B.A. (Voronezh), Khartova E.S. (Moscow). Cooperation of the Russian Orthodox and foreign Church: history and contemporaneity………………………………………………………………………………………153

BOGDAN ANATOLIEVICH ERSHOV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Sociology and History, Voronezh State Technical University. 394068, Russian Federation, Voronezh, ul. Mechnikova, 22. E-mail: bogdan.ershov@yandex.ru

ELENA SERGEEVNA KHARTOVA — Senior lecturer of the Department of History, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University, Moscow). 117292, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Profsoyuznaya, № 16/10, ap. 310.

The article deals with the history of the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Church Abroad. Particular attention is paid to the reasons that led to the separation of the two Churches. The views of prominent representatives of the Russian Church abroad are shown, in particular, the further management and organization of churches, the beliefs of foreign priests are revealed in the events taking place. The problems of interaction between the Church and state structures and their connection with unorthodox confessions are touched upon. In the article the authors come to the conclusion that the Orthodox Church abroad tried not to enter into conflict with Patriarch Tikhon, but at the same time did not lose its independence. It turned out that the bulk of the clergy stood for unity with the legitimate authority in the Church.

The materials that reveal different opinions among Russian emigrants on the interaction of the Church Abroad with the Moscow Patriarchate are systematized, namely those processes that influenced the activities of the Holy Synod as structures that controlled the clergy in emigration.

Keywords: church, state, society, revolution, priest.





Latypov T.R. (Moscow). The 40th Army in the battles for the liberation of Czechoslovakia (January-February 1945)…………………………….158

TIMUR RUSTYAMOVICH LATYPOV — Ph.D. in Law, Head of department of Contract-legal management JSC “Zarubezhneft”. 101990, Russian Federation, Moscow, Armjanskij lane, b.1, 9/1/1. E-mail: Latypovv2017@yandex.ru

On January 12, 1945, the 40th Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front launched an offensive in order to enter the valley of the Gron River. The offensive of the army was an integral part of the Western Carpathian strategic offensive operation (12.1 – 18.2.1945). In the operational subordination of the commander of the 40th Army, Lieutenant-General F.F. Zhmachenko was the 4th Romanian army of General of the Army G. Avramescu. The opponents were German and Hungarian units from the 8th German and 1st Hungarian armies of Army Group “A”. During the twenty days of the January offensive, the troops of the 40th Army advanced from 65 to 100 km with a front width of 67 km, captured 250 settlements, destroyed up to 5,000 and captured more than 3,500 enemy soldiers and officers. However, in February, the situation changed: the enemy strengthened the defense and increased strength, while the 40th and 4th Romanian armies suffered serious losses, while Romanian troops fought without due obstinacy. Therefore, the troops of the 40th Army could not fully seize the western shore of the Gron River, although they advanced up to 20 km deep into Slovakia and inflicted considerable damage on the enemy.

Keywords: Czechoslovakia, Western Carpathian strategic offensive operation, 2nd Ukrainian Front, 40th Army.





Vinogradov S.E. (Moscow). British company «John Brown & Co., Ltd» and turbines for «Sevastopol» class battleships…………………………………………………………………………………………………165

SERGEI EVGEN`EVICH VINOGRADOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher at the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. 127560, Russian Federation, Moscow, ul. Konenkova, 23-V, ap. 222. E-mail: sergei101000@ mail.ru

The article is devoted to investigation of the circumstances of the creation of turbine propulsion machinery for four battleships of the «Sevastopol» class, built at the state-owned enterprises of the Naval Ministry–Baltiiskii (Baltic) and Admiralteiskii (Admiralty) shipyards in Petersburg in 1909–1914. With the beginning of restoration of the Navy after the Russo-Japanese War, already in 1906 it was decided in Russia to equip future warships with turbine machinery. The transition to turbines meant the need to acquire a license for their manufacture, as well as their production with the help of one of the leading European manufacturers, which have already achieved notable successes in this segment of ship power engineering. The choice of the Russian Naval Ministry fell on the British company «John Brown& Co., Ltd». This company designed turbines for the first Russian dreadnoughts of the «Sevastopol»-class, carried out technical supervision on their manufacturing at the Baltic and Franco-Russian plants in Petersburg and produced a number of key deliveries of blanks and materials. Created with the help of «John Brown & Co., Ltd», the battleship turbines were remarkable for their reliability and satisfied all the specified technical parameters, which allowed the ships to reach and exceed their speed characteristics.

Keywords: Imperial Russian Navy, dreadnought battleships of the «Sevastopol» class, marine turbines, Baltic Woks, British company John Brown & Co., Ltd.


P’yankov S.A., Bedel A.E. (Yekaterinburg). War, people and engines: the history of the Ural automobile plant (1941–1945)……………………………………………………………………………………………175

STEPAN ALEKSANDROVICH P’YANKOV — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher of Economic History Department, Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 620990, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, S. Kovalevskoy St., 16. Е-mail: kliostefan@mail.ru

ALEKSANDR EMANUILOVICH BEDEL — Ph.D. in History, Senior Researcher of Economic History Department, Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 620990, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, S. Kovalevskoy St., 16. Е-mail: bedel54@mail.ru

The article presents the history of the Ural automobile plant named after I. V. Stalin, built during the Great Patriotic war on the foundation of the resources of the automobile plant ZIS, which had been evacuated from Moscow. On basis of archival sources the process of evacuation of the plant and its employees is being considered. Such issue as changes in number and composition of the stuff is shown in the book, and the level of the workers’ qualification, as well as sources of replenishment of the plant with labor resources, are being also considered. Besides, the main stages in the formation and development of automobile production at the Ural plant are presented in the book, changes in the range of products and quantitative indicators of the main types of products are being analyzed. In the end, it is concluded that despite the most difficult conditions of war with extremely limited material resources, the Soviet state managed to preserve the human resources and production capacity of one of the largest automobile enterprises in the country.

Keywords: history of industry, history of automotive industry, Ural automobile plant, Uralzis, ZIS, Miass, ZIS-5V car, human resources, Ural, Great Patriotic war.





Gessen V.Y. (Saint Petersburg). Collector of church values Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev: life with a tragic end (Part Five)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………184

VALERII YUL’EVICH GESSEN — Ph.D. in Economics. 196233, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Zvezdnaya St., 11/ 2, 140. E-mail: gessen27@mail.ru

This article is closely related to our previous publications in the journal “Klio” on the topic “The Cultural Revolution in Bolshevik in Petrograd-Leningrad in 1917‒1927”. They dealt with the problems associated with the withdrawal of Bolsheviks from all sections of the population and from various institutions of property, which primarily concerned art values of a museum nature, including objects of religious worship. The article presents a variety of historical material, which concerns the seizure by them of the archaeologist E.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev whole museum, which was a unique collection of ancient church property. His diverse activities in tsarist times were shown in charitable organizations, during the years of Soviet power, his concern for the protection of seized valuable property in Petrograd and in the Northern Region, about supplying the museums with fuel and their personnel with food. The article examines his participation in the re-evacuation from Moscow to Petrograd museum treasures; shows his defense on the pages of the newspaper “Pravda” by journalist L.S. Sosnovsky from accusations of a fighter against religion Em. Yaroslavsky, which led, ultimately, to his arrest and execution.

Keywords: Е.S. Rakhlin-Rumyantsev, Petrograd, Novgorod, Ryutino, temple-museum, church property, protection of monuments of art and antiquity, nonresident section, landowner, Pravda newspaper, “wonderful bourgeois”.





Grinёv A.V. (Saint Petersburg).The professional culture of a Russian historian in the future and in the present…………188

ANDREI VAL’TEROVICH GRINЁV — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Higher School of Social Sciences of the Humanities Institute at the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. 195251, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya St., 29. E-mail: agrinev1960@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of scientific and technical progress on the professional qualities and culture of a historian in the near future, as well as the analysis of the current situation. In this article the author outlines the main aspects that, in his opinion, will predetermine the qualities of the professional historian of the future: the skill of rational selection of the most important information and the identification of historical regularities, the good mastery of the latest computer technology and software, a thorough knowledge of foreign languages (primarily English), free orientation in numerous scientific networks on the Internet, familiarity with the basics of scientometrics and altmetrics. The author regretfully states in his article relatively low level of the modern professional culture of the majority of Russian historian specialists (specific examples are given) and calls for it to be upgraded in all available ways to meet the high scientific standards of the 21st century.

Keywords: professional culture, historian, scientific and technical progress, Internet, social networks.





Mikhailov V.V. (Saint Petersburg). Review of the scientific edition “The Leningrad. War. Blockade. Road of life: materials and research” (St. Petersburg, 2018)…………………………………………………………193

VADIM VIKTOROVICH MIKHAILOV — Doctor of Historian Science, Professor of history and political science department, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace instrumentation. 196105, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, ul. Sevastyanova, 4–102. E-mail: batukom@mail.ru

The review assesses the scientific publication “Leningrad. War. Blockade. The road of life: materials and research”, published in 2018, the Reviewer attempted to analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the publication, which included extensive materials (scientific articles, documents) on the history of the defense of Leningrad in 1941-1944, on the creation and functioning of the “Road of life” – a route that ran along lake Ladoga and connected the blocked city with the Mainland. The review considers in detail the articles published in the collection: “The Road of life: historiographical essay” (A.A. Mikhailov),” the Blockade as a kind of military action in the domestic military science and consciousness of citizens “(E.L. Korshunov, A.I. Rupasov),” the Powers of The field administration of the Leningrad front: the Organization of the Road of life ” and others Reviewer notes the controversial nature of some publications (primarily articles by E.L. Korshunov and A.I. Rupasov), which, in his opinion, does not reduce the importance and scientific value published in the collection of works.

The author of the review also analyzed and evaluated in terms of scientific significance and novelty of the published documents (namely documents and occupy a large part of the book). Of particular importance, in the opinion of the reviewer, is the publication of “Report on the activities of the Department of the back of the Leningrad front for the organization and conduct evacuation of Leningrad civilian population and the industrial enterprises”, which are stored in the Central archive of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation. The review also describes the most interesting illustrations, many of which (maps, diagrams, photos of the war years, etc.).) are themselves an important historical source.

Keywords: Great Patriotic war, Leningrad front of the Second world war, defense of Leningrad, blockade of Leningrad, Road of life.


Tikhonov M.I. ( Moscow). “There was a cult, but there was a personality” (review of the book “Stalin. 100 and 1 quote”. Compilation and historical comments by N.V. Ilievsky. Moscow, Prospect Publ., 2018)………………………………………198

MIKHAIL IVANOVICH TIKHONOV — Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Captain 1st rank, retired. 125481, Russian Federation, Moscow, Svobodu St., 71, 2, 441.

The review analyzes the book “Stalin. 100 and 1 quote” (compilation and historical comments by N.V. Ilievsky), which is a collection of quotations from the speeches and works of Stalin with historical comments and reference apparatus. In the reviewed publication the material is placed in chronological order. The comments are factual and help the reader to form his own idea of Stalin as a person and a political figure, as well as of the historical era to which he belonged. The title of the review is taken from the words of M.A. Sholokhov.

Keywords: I.V. Stalin, N.V. Ilievsky, quotes, history, the Soviet Union, revolution, political struggle, the Great Patriotic war.